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旅游导刊 ›› 2020, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (6): 6-22.DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.167

• • 上一篇    下一篇

黑色旅游的批判性反思与理论建构

王金伟1,2(),王国权1,王欣1,2   

  1. 1.北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院 北京 100024
    2.北京旅游发展研究基地 北京 100024
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-02 修回日期:2020-11-30 出版日期:2020-12-30 发布日期:2021-01-27
  • 作者简介:王金伟(1983— ),男,四川绵阳人,博士,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院副教授、硕士生导师,北京旅游发展研究基地研究员,研究方向:旅游经济、旅游政策、遗产旅游。E-mail:tourismer@aliyun.com|王国权(1994— ),男,江苏连云港人,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院研究生,研究方向:黑色旅游、旅游者行为、旅游目的地管理。|王欣(1979— ),男,湖北黄石人,博士,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院教授、硕士生导师,中国文化和旅游产业研究院副院长,研究方向:旅游地理、旅游目的地管理、文化旅游。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(41701168);面上项目(71673015/G031031)

Dark Tourism Research: Critical Reflection and Theoretical Construction

WANG Jinwei1,2(),WANG Guoquan1,WANG Xin1,2   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
    2. Research Center for Beijing Tourism Development, Beijing 100024, China
  • Received:2020-10-02 Revised:2020-11-30 Online:2020-12-30 Published:2021-01-27

摘要:

近年来,以死亡和灾难等为主题的黑色旅游受到国内外学术界的广泛关注,并已成为国际旅游学术研究中的一个重要热点。然而,这一领域仍然存在着一些尚未彻底解决的基础性理论问题。基于此,本文在深入梳理黑色旅游概念与内涵的基础上,对“黑色旅游”术语的适宜性进行了学术性辩证,并创新性地提出了“墨色旅游”这一替代性概念(译称)。同时,从“需求者”视角描摹了黑色旅游者的游客画像和动机谱系,以更为精确地识别黑色旅游者的真实“身份”。本文还进一步从“供给者”视角对黑色景观及黑色旅游地的类型进行了梳理,并探索性地提出了“黑色旅游地色度衰减曲线”。本研究有助于进一步深入认识黑色旅游现象的本质,并为相关理论框架的构建提供有益启示。

关键词: 黑色旅游; 旅游者行为; 旅游动机; 目的地管理; 理论建构

Abstract:

In recent years, dark tourism, with its themes of death and disaster, has aroused considerable interest in domestic and foreign academia and become an important domain in international tourism academic research. However, there are still some fundamental theoretical problems in this field that have not been completely solved. In response, this paper systematically examines the concept and connotations of dark tourism domestically and internationally and redefines dark tourism from the perspectives of both narrow sense and broad sense. In order to further distinguish the characteristics of different types of dark tourism, this paper constructs the type spectrum of dark tourism from three dimensions: the influence intensity of dark events, the time interval since dark events have happened, and the spatial distance from the place where the dark event has occurred; dark tourism is then classified into seven different types. Among them, six colors are employed in the dark tourism type spectrum (darkest-darker-dark-light-lighter-lightest; Stone, 2006). Transitional (dark) tourism is a new type of dark tourism proposed in this study. This paper then comprehensively compares the similarities and differences between dark tourism and red tourism from three aspects: tourism subject, tourism object, and development driving force. The appropriateness of the term “dark tourism” is discussed academically, and the alternative concept of “Mose Lvyou (in Chinese)” is proposed creatively. At the same time, this paper analyzes the tourist portrait and motivation spectrum of dark tourists from the perspective of demand so as to accurately determine the real identity of dark tourists. Results show that dark tourists are more likely to be female and young people than conventional tourists. Dark tourists are also more likely to be interested in dark events. It may be concluded that dark tourists are more emotionally and educationally involved in the process of sightseeing. Meanwhile, according to the chromaticity of darkness, dark tourism visitors’ motivation is divided into core motivation, transitional motivation, and peripheral motivation. The paper further explores the types of dark tourism landscape from the perspective of supply and divides them into three categories: natural dark tourism landscape, humanistic dark tourism landscape, and natural-humanistic combined dark tourism landscape. In addition, the “darkness attenuation curve of dark tourism destination” is proposed for the first time. On this basis, the paper suggests that attention should be paid to the authenticity of dark heritage and ethical and moral issues in the development of dark tourism destinations in the future. This study is expected to contribute to a deeper understanding of the nature of dark tourism and provides useful insights into the construction of a relevant theoretical framework.

Keywords: dark tourism; tourist behavior; tourist motivation; destination management; theoretical construction

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