Please wait a minute...

微信公众号

编辑部微信号

旅游导刊  2020, Vol. 4 Issue (6): 43-58    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.148
    
自然灾难地居民风险知觉与旅游支持度的关系研究——以汶川大地震重灾区北川和都江堰为例
郑春晖1(),张捷2
1.广州大学旅游学院 广东广州 510006
2.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院 江苏南京 210023
The Relationship Among Residents’ Risk Perception, Place Attachment and Support for Tourism in Post-Disaster Tourism Areas : A Study of Beichuan County and Dujiangyan City
ZHENG Chunhui1(),ZHANG Jie2
1. School of Tourism, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
 全文: PDF(8885 KB)   HTML
摘要:

尽管近年来学界对黑色旅游关注较多,但有关于生活安全感如何影响灾区居民对所在城市灾后发展旅游的感知与态度的探讨仍很少。本文以“5·12”汶川大地震重灾区北川羌族自治县和都江堰市为实证案例地,调查并分析居民对地震后发展旅游业的支持程度如何受到危机事件认知(风险评价、风险情感、风险防御倾向)与地方依恋的影响。研究发现:当居民认为次生灾害等风险发生的可能性越高、后果越严重时,触发的风险情感(如担忧等)越强烈;当风险情感越强烈时,居民采取风险防御行为的意愿也会越强,从而越倾向于支持灾后发展旅游业;风险防御行为意向对地方依恋和旅游支持度均产生显著的正向影响;居民的地方依恋越强,越倾向于支持灾后发展旅游业。本文创新性地从更广义的居民风险知觉、风险防御与地方依恋的视角,探讨居民对灾后发展旅游业的态度,对灾区恢复重建过程中旅游业的发展提供一定启示。

关键词: 黑色旅游风险知觉地方依恋旅游支持度大规模自然灾难汶川大地震    
Abstract:

Although research on dark tourism has received more and more academic attention in recent years, few scholars have explored how the local residents’ sense of security influences their perceptions of and attitudes towards tourism development in disaster-stricken areas. Using the two sites hit hardest by the May 12th Wenchuan earthquake (Beichuan and Dujiangyan) as empirical cases, this study aims to explore how residents consider the development of tourism after the earthquake and how residents’ support for tourism is influenced by their risk perception (i.e., “perceived risk,” “risk-related emotions,” and “intended risk prevention”) and “place attachment.” The results demonstrate that 1) the higher the anticipated possibility of future secondary disasters and the more severe the disaster damages are, the more likely residents will exhibit intense negative emotions such as worry and anxiety; 2) the more intense their sense of risk, the more likely residents are willing to take preventive actions against possible future disasters, resulting in their willingness to support the development of tourism; 3) residents’ willingness towards risk prevention exerts a significantly positive impact on their place attachment and support for tourism; 4) stronger place attachment generates active support for tourism. This study explores and unveils residents’ attitudes towards the development of tourism in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster from the perspectives of residents’ perceived risk, risk-related emotions, risk prevention, and place attachment. It thus contributes to the development of tourism in the post-disaster recovery and reconstruction process.

Key words: dark tourism    risk perception    place attachment    support for tourism    large-scale natural disaster    Wenchuan earthquake
收稿日期: 2019-12-28 出版日期: 2021-01-27
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“纪念性恐惧景观负面地理想象的形成机理与空间效应研究”(41801135);教育部人文社科基金项目“黑色旅游地恐惧景观的公众知觉与国家认同提升路径研究”(17YJC790209)
作者简介: 郑春晖(1986— ),女,广西桂林人,博士,广州大学旅游学院副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向:黑色旅游、旅游者心理与行为。E-mail: chunhui863@163.com|张捷(1960— ),男,江苏泰兴人,博士,南京大学地理与海洋科学学院教授,博士生导师,研究方向:文化地理与旅游规划。
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
郑春晖
张捷

引用本文:

郑春晖,张捷. 自然灾难地居民风险知觉与旅游支持度的关系研究——以汶川大地震重灾区北川和都江堰为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 43-58.

ZHENG Chunhui,ZHANG Jie. The Relationship Among Residents’ Risk Perception, Place Attachment and Support for Tourism in Post-Disaster Tourism Areas : A Study of Beichuan County and Dujiangyan City. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2020, 4(6): 43-58.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.148        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V4/I6/43

图1  风险知觉-地方依恋-旅游支持度的假设模型
人口及社会特征 比例(%) 人口及社会特征 比例(%)
性别 年龄
46.1 ≤20岁 6.8
53.9 21~30岁 24.4
文化程度 31~40岁 28.7
小学及以下 19.4 41~50岁 27.7
初中 42.0 51~60岁 8.4
高中 28.4 ≥61岁 4.0
大专及以上 10.2 民族
出生地
本地
非本地

75.0
25.0
74.9
0.5
22.7
1.9
表1  样本的社会人口特征(N=629)
因子/项目 均值 因子载荷 组合信度(CR) 平均方差提取值(AVE)
RP风险评价(α=0.794) 0.801 0.505
灾害发生的可能性较大 3.35 0.591
灾害发生时个人受灾可能性较大 3.60 0.805
灾害对我造成很大的威胁 3.69 0.780
灾害造成的后果持续很长时间 3.63 0.644
RE风险情感(α=0.789) 0.793 0.490
对于灾害风险,我感到非常绝望 3.12 0.707
对于灾害风险,我感到非常担心 3.75 0.786
对于灾害风险,我感到非常无助 3.45 0.655
对于灾害风险,我感到非常伤心 3.97 0.644
CI风险防御倾向(α=0.758) 0.763 0.520
我会尽力采取一些风险防御措施 4.16 0.767
我会尽力减少灾害风险带来的破坏 4.13 0.770
我会尽力进行个人互救、自我恢复 4.28 0.616
PI地方认同(α=0.818) 0.827 0.549
我对这里具有强烈的认同感 4.09 0.727
我感觉这里是我生命的一部分 4.12 0.825
我非常依恋这里 4.15 0.821
这里对我而言具有特殊的意义 4.21 0.559
PD地方依赖(α=0.712) 0.719 0.461
这里提供了其他地方无法提供的生活条件 3.71 0.625
我认为这里比其他地方都更适合人居住 4.11 0.687
我非常满意在这里的生活 4.13 0.721
SU旅游支持度(α=0.708) 0.825 0.542
这里有较好的旅游资源和条件 4.13 0.682
旅游业给我们带来了经济收益 3.75 0.745
我支持旅游业的进一步发展 4.35 0.780
我愿意参与旅游业的开发与经营工作 4.06 0.733
表2  测量量表因子载荷与可靠性系数
拟合
指标
绝对拟合指数 增值适配度指数 简约适配度指标
χ2/df GFI RMSEA RMR NFI TLI CFI IFI PNFI PGFI
标准
指数值
2.0-5.0 >0.90 <0.08 <0.08 >0.90 >0.90 >0.90 >0.90 >0.50 >0.50
假设
模型
3.267 0.941 0.059 0.047 0.907 0.917 0.933 0.934 0.727 0.670
表3  模型的拟合指数
图2  结构方程模型标准化参数估计 注:*表示在p<0.1水平上显著,**表示在p<0.05水平上显著,***表示在p<0.001水平上显著,虚线表示不显著
假设
关系
影响路径 标准化
参数估计
T值
(t-value)
显著性p 验证结果
H1 风险评价→风险情感 0.731 13.040 *** 正向影响显著
H2 风险情感→风险防御 0.201 2.389 0.017 正向影响不显著
H3 风险评价→风险防御 0.135 1.635 0.102 正向影响显著
H4 风险评价→地方依恋 -0.107 -1.266 0.205 负向影响不显著
H5 风险情感→地方依恋 0.103 1.456 0.145 正向影响不显著
H6 风险防御倾向→地方依恋 0.354 6.234 *** 正向影响显著
H7 风险评价→旅游支持度 0.019 0.250 0.803 正向影响不显著
H8 风险情感→旅游支持度 -0.065 -0.843 0.399 负向影响不显著
H9 风险防御倾向→旅游支持度 0.094 1.792 0.073 正向影响显著
H10 地方依恋→旅游支持度 0.730 9.978 *** 正向影响显著
表4  结构模型假设检验结果
[1] Becken S, Hughey K F D. Linking tourism into emergency management structures to enhance disaster risk reduction[J]. Tourism Management, 2013(36):77~85.
[2] Böhm G, Pfister H R. Action tendencies and characteristics of environmental risks[J]. Acta Psychologica, 2000,104(3):317~337.
doi: 10.1016/s0001-6918(00)00035-4 pmid: 10900699
[3] Chen S R, Wang S S, Xu H G. Influence of place identity on residents’ attitudes to dark tourism[J]. Journal of China Tourism Research, 2017,13(4):338~356.
[4] Devine-Wright P. Rethinking NIMBYism:The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action[J]. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 2009,19(6):426~441.
[5] Foley M, Lennon J J. JFK and dark tourism:A fascination with assassination[J]. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 1996,2(4):198~211.
[6] Guo Y R, Zhang J, Zhang Y L, et al. Examining the relationship between social capital and community residents’ perceived resilience in tourism destinations[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2018,26(6):973~986.
[7] Hughey K F D, Becken S. Value-engaged evaluation of a tourism-specific disaster management plan[J]. Tourism Management Perspectives, 2016(19):69~73.
[8] Jorgensen B S, Stedman R C. A comparative analysis of predictors of sense of place dimensions:Attachment to,dependence on,and identification with lakeshore properties[J]. Journal of Environmental Management, 2006,79(3):316~327.
doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.08.003 pmid: 16288828
[9] Kim S, Butler G. Local community perspectives towards dark tourism development:The case of Snowtown,South Australia[J]. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 2015,13(1):78~89.
[10] Laws E, Prideaux B. Tourism CrisesManagement Responses and Theoretical Insight[M]. Binghamton: Haworth Hospitality Press, 2006.
[11] Lin Y W, Kelemen M, Tresidder R. Post-disaster tourism:Building resilience through community-led approaches in the aftermath of the 2011 disasters in Japan[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2018,26(10):1766~1783.
[12] Mccool S F, Martin S R. Community attachment and attitudes toward tourism development[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 1994,32(3):29~34.
[13] Nian S F, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Two sides of a coin:A crisis response perspective on tourist community participation in a post-disaster environment[J]. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019,16(12):2073.
[14] Nunkoo R, Ramkissoon H. Developing a community support model for tourism[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2011,38(3):964~988.
[15] Onuma H, Shin K J, Managi S. Household preparedness for natural disasters:Impact of disaster experience and implications for future disaster risks in Japan[J]. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2017(21):148~158.
[16] Porteous J D, Smith S E. DomicideThe Global Destruction of Home[M]. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001.
[17] Qian L L, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Hit close to home:The moderating effects of past experiences on tourists’ on-site experiences and behavioral intention in post-earthquake site[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2017,22(9):936~950.
[18] Silver A, Grek-Martin J. “Now we understand what community really means”:Reconceptualizing the role of sense of place in the disaster recovery process[J]. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2015(42):32~41.
[19] Sun Y H, Zhou H J, Wall G, et al. Cognition of disaster risk in a tourism community:An agricultural heritage system perspective[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2017,25(4):536~553.
[20] Tang Y. Travel motivation,destination image and visitor satisfaction of international tourists after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake:A structural modelling approach[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2014,19(11):1260~1277.
[21] Tatsuki S, Hayashi H, Zoleta-Nantes D B, et al. The impact of risk perception,disaster schema,resources,intention,attitude,and norms upon risk aversive behavior among Marikina City residents:Structural equation modeling with latent variables [C]//Proceedings of Asia Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Manila,Philippines, 2004.
[22] Tsai C, Wu T E, Wall G, et al. Perceptions of tourism impacts and community resilience to natural disasters[J]. Tourism Geographies, 2016,18(2):152~173.
doi: 10.1080/14616688.2016.1149875
[23] Tuan Y F. Landscapes of Fear[M]. New York,NY:Pantheon Books, 1979.
[24] Um S, Crompton J L. Measuring resident’s attachment levels in a host community[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 1987,26(1):27~29.
[25] Wang J W, Luo X R. Resident perception of dark tourism impact:The case of Beichuan County,China[J]. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 2018,16(5):463~481.
doi: 10.1080/14766825.2017.1345918
[26] Wang S S, Xu H G. Influence of place-based senses of distinctiveness,continuity,self-esteem and self-efficacy on residents’ attitudes toward tourism[J]. Tourism Management, 2015(47):241~250.
[27] Wang S S. Residents’ perceptions of community-based disaster tourism:The case of Yingxiu,China[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2019,24(7):669~678.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2019.1623273
[28] Wang Y S. The impact of crisis events and macroeconomic activity on Taiwan’s international inbound tourism demand[J]. Tourism Management, 2009,30(1):75~82.
doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2008.04.010
[29] Williams D R, Vaske J J. The measurement of place attachment:Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach[J]. Forest Science, 2003,49(6):830~840.
[30] Wright D, Sharpley R. Local community perceptions of disaster tourism:The case of L’Aquila,Italy[J]. Current Issues in Tourism, 2018,21(14):1569~1585.
[31] Yan B J, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Investigating the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism space:A case study of the Beichuan earthquake relics,China[J]. Tourism Management, 2016(53):108~121.
[32] Yates J F, Stone E R. Risk appraisal[M] // Yates J F. Risk-Taking Behavior. Oxford,England,UK:John Wiley & Sons, 1992: 49~85.
[33] 北川羌族自治县地方志办公室. 北川年鉴[EB/OL]. http//navi.cnki.net/knavi/YearbookDetail?pcode=CYFD&pykm=YBZQZ,2011-12-01/2019-11-06.
[34] 陈星, 张捷, 卢韶婧, 等. 自然灾害遗址型黑色旅游地参观者动机研究——以汶川地震北川遗址公园为例[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014,33(7):979~989.
[35] 成都市统计局, 国家统计局成都调查队. 成都统计年鉴[EB/OL]. http://navi.cnki.net/knavi/YearbookDetail?pcode=CYFD&pykm=YDIEM,2010-03-01/2019-11-06.
[36] 方叶林, 黄震方, 涂玮, 等. 黑色旅游外文文献研究述评[J]. 南京师大学报(自然科学版), 2013,36(2):132~138.
[37] 国家减灾委员会科学技术部抗震救灾专家组. 汶川地震灾害综合分析与评估[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2008: 99~103.
[38] 何景明. “红与黑”:论精神旅游产品的开发向度[J]. 旅游学刊, 2012,27(2):88~93.
[39] 罗青苗, 高联辉, 唐艳. 公共关系视角下的汶川灾区黑色旅游开发探析[J]. 特区经济, 2011(11):175~177.
[40] 申健健, 喻学才. 国外黑色旅游研究综述[J]. 旅游学刊, 2009,24(4):92~96.
[41] 汪德根, 王金莲, 陈田, 等. 乡村居民旅游支持度影响模型及机理——基于不同生命周期阶段的苏州乡村旅游地比较[J]. 地理学报, 2011,66(10):1413~1426.
[42] 王金伟, 王士君. 黑色旅游发展动力机制及“共生”模式研究——以汶川8.0级地震后的四川为例[J]. 经济地理, 2010,30(2):339~344.
[43] 王金伟, 张赛茵. 灾害纪念地的黑色旅游者:动机、类型化及其差异——以北川地震遗址区为例[J]. 地理研究, 2016,35(8):1576~1588.
[44] 王金伟, 谢伶, 张赛茵. 自然灾难地黑色旅游发展:居民感知与社区参与——以北川羌族自治县吉娜羌寨为例[J]. 旅游学刊, 2020,doi: 10.19765/j.cnki.1002-5006.2020.00.001.
[45] 王咏, 陆林. 基于社会交换理论的社区旅游支持度模型及应用——以黄山风景区门户社区为例[J]. 地理学报, 2014,69(10):1557~1574.
[46] 吴春涛, 李熙, 段金莉. 自然灾害旅游目的地的开发、管理和发展——以四川北川羌城旅游区为例[J]. 地域研究与开发, 2016,35(3):81~85.
[47] 吴明隆. 结构方程模型:AMOS的操作与应用[M]. 重庆: 重庆大学出版社, 2010: 328.
[48] 谢晓非, 徐联仓. 风险认知研究概况及理论框架[J]. 心理学动态, 1995(2):17~22.
[49] 谢彦君, 孙佼佼, 卫银栋. 论黑色旅游的愉悦性:一种体验视角下的死亡观照[J]. 旅游学刊, 2015,30(3):86~94.
[50] 许振晓, 张捷, Wall G, 等. 居民地方感对区域旅游发展支持度影响——以九寨沟旅游核心社区为例[J]. 地理学报, 2009,64(6):736~744.
[51] 颜丙金, 张捷, 李莉, 等. 自然灾害型景观游客体验的感知差异分析[J]. 资源科学, 2016,38(8):1465~1475.
[52] 庄春萍, 张建新. 地方认同:环境心理学视角下的分析[J]. 心理科学进展, 2011,19(9):1387~1396.
[1] 王金伟. 黑色旅游学术研究的理论前沿与本土实践[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 1-5.
[2] 唐勇,钟美玲,王尧树,秦宏瑶,傅滢滢. 汶川地震黑色旅游地社区居民地方感聚类研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 28-42.
[3] 钱莉莉,李罕梁,季靖. 黑色旅游地游客集体记忆建构及其对行为意愿的影响——以“5·12”汶川地震北川老县城遗址为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 59-74.
[4] 王金伟,王国权,王欣. 黑色旅游的批判性反思与理论建构[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 6-22.
[5] 颜丙金,刘俊,黄艳娴. 黑色旅游游客体验及其类型差异性研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 75-90.
[6] 龙江智,段浩然,何洋. 古镇情境下旅游涉入、地方依恋对游客满意度的影响研究——以体验质量为中介[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(4): 56-73.
[7] 刘松, 楼嘉军. 玩也可以是认真的吗?——国外游憩专业化研究述评[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(6): 64-82.