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旅游导刊 ›› 2022, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (1): 1-23.DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.192

• 专题论文:理论建构探索与展望 •    下一篇

负面预期、冲突回避与抑制性进言:理论建构中的概念化历程

张志学()   

  1. 北京大学光华管理学院 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2021-12-08 修回日期:2022-01-01 出版日期:2022-02-28 发布日期:2022-04-06
  • 作者简介:张志学(1967— ),男,河南信阳人,北京大学教授,博士生导师,研究方向:组织创新、冲突处理与谈判、团队过程、领导力。E-mail: zxzhang@gsm.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大研究计划集成项目(92146003)

Negative Anticipation, Conflict Avoidance, and Prohibitive Voice: The Process of Conceptualization in Theory Construction

ZHANG Zhixue()   

  1. Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2021-12-08 Revised:2022-01-01 Online:2022-02-28 Published:2022-04-06

摘要:

本文回顾了笔者关于负面预期、冲突回避和抑制性进言的研究历程。中国社会注重关系和人情,人们推崇以和为贵。在个人利益与维持人际和谐产生冲突的情境下,不少人会选择牺牲个人利益以维持表面和谐,原因在于人们担心采取维护个人利益的行动将会冒犯他人。这种负面预期导致人们回避冲突,但回避实则容易引发更多的冲突。笔者通过众多研究试图揭开这一现象背后的机制,并采取有效的方式鼓励人们打破心中的桎梏,直面冲突。笔者将这一主题进一步扩展到工作情境中,开展了与进言相关的研究。希望本文关于笔者探索历程的描述能够启示从事旅游管理研究的学者,在探讨纷繁复杂的现象和真实主动的现实场景时,构建出经得起检验,同时被学术社区接受的概念和理论,促进人们在旅游情境下做出环境友好型行为。

关键词: 冲突回避, 负面预期, 抑制性进言, 理论建构, 中国情境

Abstract:

In this paper, I reflect on the process of research on negative anticipation, conflict avoidance, and prohibitive voice. In Chinese society, social connections and personal favors are treasured, and interpersonal harmony is highly valued. In situations whereby personal interests conflict with the maintenance of interpersonal balance, many people choose to sacrifice their personal interests so as to maintain a superficial sense of harmony. This practice derives from people’s fear that actions taken to safeguard their personal interests will offend others. Negative anticipation leads people to avoid conflicts; however, avoidance may result in more conflicts. In this paper, we have uncovered the mechanism of this phenomenon and explored effective ways to break the shackles of people’s minds and to encourage people to face conflicts. We have further extended this to the work setting and researched how best to encourage people to speak up. It is hoped that our explorations can inspire scholars engaged in tourism management research to develop constructs and theories while exploring complex phenomena and real-life situations. It is also hoped that their constructs and theories will stand the test of time, be accepted by the academic community, and help bring about more environment-friendly behavior among visitors in their tourism activities.

Key words: conflict avoidance, negative anticipation, prohibitive voice, theory construction, Chinese context

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