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旅游导刊  2020, Vol. 4 Issue (6): 75-90    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.169
    
黑色旅游游客体验及其类型差异性研究
颜丙金1,2(),刘俊1,黄艳娴1
1.南京财经大学工商管理学院 江苏南京 210023
2.南京财经大学旅游产业发展研究院 江苏南京 210023
Study on Tourists’ Experience of Dark Tourism and the Difference Among Various Tourist Types
YAN Bingjin1,2(),LIU Jun1,HUANG Yanxian1
1. School of Business Administration, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023, China
2. Institute of Tourism Industry Development, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023, China
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摘要:

游客类型和体验是旅游研究中不可缺少的因素。本文基于以往黑色旅游概念,梳理和重新认识黑色旅游者,并以前往北川地震遗址参观的游客为对象,采用因子分析、事后分析等定量研究方法对黑色旅游游客体验及其类型差异进行测量。结果显示:(1)黑色旅游游客体验可从情感和认知两方面解释,前者涉及同情和庆幸等内容,后者涉及教育和学习等内容;(2)相对于认知体验,游客受灾难景观的强烈视觉刺激更易产生情感体验(从均值大小判断);(3)黑色旅游地能够使游客产生以同情为基调的体验,该体验及与学习相关的体验均受到游客类型的影响。本研究可为黑色旅游景区的开发和管理提供借鉴。

关键词: 黑色旅游灾难景观游客体验事后分析北川地震遗址    
Abstract:

Tourist types and experience are indispensable factors in the research of tourism. Based on previous interpretations regarding the concept of dark tourism and disaster tourism, this study presents and rethinks the definition of dark tourism. As tourists’ experience of dark tourism and the dimensions of their experience are very much affected by the tourist types they belong to, it is thus the purpose of this study to empirically explore the differences among various dark tourism visitor groups. The findings of this study may provide particular practical values for developing and managing disaster-related tourist destinations. The results show that the dark tourism experience consists of emotional and cognitive experiences. While emotional experience involves tourists’ sympathy and shock at the disaster, cognitive experience is related to education and knowledge. Furthermore, the visual sight of the disaster-stricken landscape strengthens tourists’ emotional experience in comparison to their cognitive experience (judging from the mean value). Finally, the dark tourism destination or landscape may largely evoke sympathy on the part of visitors. Both emotional and knowledge-related experiences are affected by the types of tourists. It is hoped that this study’s findings will provide some insight into the development and management of dark tourism sites.

Key words: dark tourism    post-disaster landscape    tourists’ experience;    post-hoc analysis    Beichuan earthquake ruins
收稿日期: 2019-12-20 出版日期: 2021-01-27
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(41801136);江苏省高等学校自然科学研究面上项目(17KJB170007);江苏省高校哲学社会科学研究基金项目(2018SJA0257)
作者简介: 颜丙金(1985— ),男,河北邯郸人,南京财经大学工商管理学院讲师、硕士生导师,研究方向:黑色旅游与社会文化旅游。E-mail: xhxh_0101226@163.com|刘俊(1997— ),男,江苏南京人,南京财经大学工商管理学院硕士研究生,研究方向:文化旅游与文化产业管理。|黄艳娴(1997— ),女,福建莆田人,南京财经大学工商管理学院硕士研究生,研究方向:文化旅游与文化产业管理。
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引用本文:

颜丙金,刘俊,黄艳娴. 黑色旅游游客体验及其类型差异性研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 75-90.

YAN Bingjin,LIU Jun,HUANG Yanxian. Study on Tourists’ Experience of Dark Tourism and the Difference Among Various Tourist Types. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2020, 4(6): 75-90.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.169        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V4/I6/75

类别 人数 比例(%) 类别 人数 比例(%)
性别 受教育程度
167 57.19 小学及以下 13 4.45
125 42.81 初中 26 8.91
年龄 高中或中专 86 29.45
14岁以下 14 4.79 专科/本科 145 49.66
15~24岁 66 22.60 硕士及以上 22 7.53
25~44岁 181 61.99 职业
45~64岁 27 9.25 公务员 23 7.88
64岁以上 4 1.37 企事业管理 40 13.70
收入 专业/文教技术 27 9.25
≤1500元 98 33.56 服务销售商贸 29 9.93
1501~3500元 92 31.51 工人 36 12.33
3501~5000元 69 23.63 农民 20 6.85
5001~8000元 21 7.19 军人 4 1.37
8001~12500元 5 1.71 学生 62 21.23
>12500元 7 2.40 离退休 6 2.05
客源地 其他职业 45 15.41
四川省 213 72.95
非四川省 79 27.05
表 1  样本描述性统计(N=293)
序号 情感体验 认知体验 均值 方差 总体相关
系数
因子1
同情
因子2
庆幸
因子3
教育
因子4
学习
EXP11(同情逝去的同胞) 0.814(0.812) 4.64 0.60 0.56
EXP12(同情地震幸存者和经历者) 0.776(0.774) 4.55 0.68 0.57
EXP10(体会到幸存者和经历者的伤痛) 0.729(0.728) 4.57 0.72 0.46
EXP9(相比之下自己的生活很幸福) 0.778(0.767) 3.78 1.18 0.43
EXP7(相比之下自己没有亲朋好友遭难) 0.742(0.736) 4.15 1.08 0.42
EXP8(相比之下自己没有灾难的经历) 0.700(0.707) 4.60 0.74 0.49
EXP1(一方有难八方支援理念很重要) 0.920(0.912) 3.18 1.29 0.73
EXP2(防灾减灾意识很重要) 0.919(0.902) 3.17 1.20 0.73
EXP3(建筑物抗震级别很重要) (0.198) (0.298) (0.393) (0.334)
EXP6(地震的后果很严重) 0.806(0.799) 3.93 1.05 0.50
EXP4(地震的级别很高) 0.797(0.791) 3.35 1.30 0.46
EXP5(地震的伤亡很大) 0.491(0.491) 4.56 0.71 0.35
特征值 3.05(3.29) 1.86(1.91) 1.27(1.27) 1.19(1.19)
方差贡献率(%) 27.74(27.45) 16.87(15.90) 11.51(10.56) 10.86(9.95)
Cronbach’s α 0.705 0.6201 0.821 0.601
表 2  黑色旅游体验因子分析
第一类
n=53
第二类
n=69
第三类
n=170
整体均值 标准方差 One-way ANOVA
组间差异
同情相关体验 4.51a 4.46a 4.64a 4.59 0.98 F=3.38*
学习功能体验 3.78 a 3.62a 4.13b 3.95 7.23 F=12.75**
庆幸相关体验 4.06 4.06 4.23 4.16 1.08 F=2.16
教育功能体验 3.19 2.93 3.26 3.17 2.62 F=1.96
组内差异(Paired Samples Test:t值)
Pair 1:同情-学习 t=10.69** t=5.46** t=6.37** t=13.31** t=0.81
Pair 2:同情-教育 t=12.57** t=8.88** t=11.37** t=19.00** t=1.26
Pair 3:同情-庆幸 t=5.89** t=3.98** t=6.63** t=8.83** t=0.58
Pair 4:学习-教育 t=6.59** t=3.55** t=7.90** t=10.60** t=1.25
Pair 5:学习-庆幸 t=-4.18** t=-1.98 t=-0.45 t=-4.17** t=0.89
Pair 6:教育-庆幸 t=-8.72** t=-5.49** t=-7.99** t=-12.91** t=1.30
表3  黑色旅游体验维度组内及组间差异性
组别 统计指数 EM EP EE EK
性别 Z值 -0.332 -1.090 -1.373 -0.229
Monte Carlo 显著性 0.740 0.276 0.170 0.819
年龄 Z值 4.406 0.729 2.118 4.853
Monte Carlo 显著性 0.354 0.948 0.714 0.303
月收入 卡方值 7.879 5.750 3.303 1.953
Monte Carlo 显著性 0.163 0.331 0.653 0.856
职业 卡方值 3.999 4.391 10.874 14.150
Monte Carlo 显著性 0.912 0.884 0.284 0.117
受教育程度 卡方值 3.138 4.296 4.394 1.336
Monte Carlo 显著性 0.535 0.367 0.355 0.855
表4  黑色旅游游客体验维度组间差异
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