Please wait a minute...

微信公众号

编辑部微信号

旅游导刊  2020, Vol. 4 Issue (6): 59-74    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.147
    
黑色旅游地游客集体记忆建构及其对行为意愿的影响——以“5·12”汶川地震北川老县城遗址为例
钱莉莉(),李罕梁,季靖
浙江大学城市学院商学院 浙江杭州 310015
The Construction of Collective Memory of Dark Tourism Sites and its Influence on Tourists’ Behavioral Intentions: A Case Study of the Earthquake-stricken Old Town of Beichuan County
QIAN Lili(),LI Hanliang,JI Jing
School of Business, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China
 全文: PDF(9254 KB)   HTML
摘要:

黑色旅游地与痛苦、暴行、自然灾难及人类大规模死亡等相关,是苦难与创伤历史的纪念空间,其集体记忆的建构与传承受到学者关注。本文以“5·12”汶川地震灾区北川羌族自治县的老县城遗址为案例,定量探讨黑色旅游地游客集体记忆的维度特征,建构了“集体记忆-满意度-行为意愿”结构方程模型。研究显示,灾难记忆、抗灾记忆、灾难认知、负面情感、观念启示等5个集体记忆维度通过满意度对地方保护意愿、重访推荐意愿起显著正向影响。本研究从集体记忆这一新的理论视角探讨黑色旅游体验及其对游客行为意愿的影响,对黑色旅游地的保护、规划、展陈、管理有一定借鉴价值。

关键词: 黑色旅游汶川地震集体记忆满意度行为意愿    
Abstract:

Dark tourism sites are associated with human pain, atrocity, disaster, and mass death. As dark tourism sites are memorial spaces of great human suffering and tragedy, how they help construct and inherit collective memory and affect tourists’ behavior has attracted academic attention. Taking, as an example, the ruins of the old town of Beichuan county, which was badly hit by the Wenchuan earthquake and is now preserved as a national heritage site, this paper quantitatively discusses the dimensions and characteristics of tourists’ collective memory and constructs a structural equation model of “collective memory-satisfaction-behavioral intentions” to explore the effect of collective memory on tourists’ post-visit behavioral intentions. The results show that tourists’ collective memories consist of five dimensions: memory of disaster, memory of disaster relief, disaster cognition, negative emotions, and enlightenment. All these aspects of collective memory have a significant positive impact on tourists’ approval of the ruins’ protection and their intention to revisit the sites and recommend these sites to others if tourists are satisfied with their experience. This study explores dark tourism experiences from a new theoretical perspective of collective memory. The results may provide a reference for the planning, protection, display, and management of dark tourism sites.

Key words: dark tourism    Wenchuan earthquake    collective memory    satisfaction    behavioral intentions
收稿日期: 2020-02-08 出版日期: 2021-01-27
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金(41901175);国家文化旅游部“双师型”师资人才培养项目(WLRCS2019-020);教育部人文社科基金(16YJCZH033);浙江省哲学社会科学规划课题(21NQN295YB)
作者简介: 钱莉莉(1985— ),女,浙江杭州人,博士,浙江大学城市学院讲师,研究方向:文化遗产旅游、旅游规划。E-mail: lilyq1119@126.com|李罕梁(1985— ),男,浙江杭州人,博士,浙江大学城市学院讲师,研究方向:旅游消费者行为、旅游规划。|季靖(1977— ),女,河南固始人,博士,浙江大学城市学院副教授,研究方向:旅游目的地管理、旅游消费者行为。
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
钱莉莉
李罕梁
季靖

引用本文:

钱莉莉,李罕梁,季靖. 黑色旅游地游客集体记忆建构及其对行为意愿的影响——以“5·12”汶川地震北川老县城遗址为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 59-74.

QIAN Lili,LI Hanliang,JI Jing. The Construction of Collective Memory of Dark Tourism Sites and its Influence on Tourists’ Behavioral Intentions: A Case Study of the Earthquake-stricken Old Town of Beichuan County. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2020, 4(6): 59-74.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.147        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V4/I6/59

图1  游客集体记忆、满意度、行为意愿结构方程模型假设
项目 样本数量及占比 项目 样本数量及占比
性别 参观次数
157(53%) 首次 238(80%)
141(47%) 二次及以上 60(20%)
年龄 客源地
≤19岁 6(2%) 四川省内 170(57%)
20~29岁 124(42%) 四川省外 128(43%)
30~39岁 58(19%) 经历地震
40~49岁 67(22%) 155(52%)
50~59岁 29(10%) 143(48%)
≥60岁 14(5%) 损失程度
受教育程度 没有
极少
一般
较多
严重
193(65%)
55(18%)
29(10%)
14(5%)
7(2%)
小学及以下 14(5%)
初中 50(17%)
高中/中专 82(27%)
大专/本科 140(47%)
硕士及以上 12(4%)
表1  样本人口统计学特征
因子 题项 载荷 贡献率 Cronbach’s α
因子 题项 载荷 贡献率 Cronbach’s α
KMO值为0.84,巴氏球形检验近似卡方值为1 819.13(p=0.000)
灾难记忆 DM1回忆/联想起地动山摇的情景 0.81 16.5% 0.85
(DM) DM2回忆/联想起建筑坍塌的惨状 0.85
DM3回忆/联想起遇难受伤同胞 0.80
抗灾记忆 FDM1回忆/联想起抢险救灾 0.84 16.6% 0. 85
(FDM) FDM2回忆/联想起各地帮助支持 0.84
FDM3回忆/联想起遗址保护重建 0.78
灾难认知 DC1地震对当地造成重大经济损失 0.83 10.9% 0.68
(DC) DC2地震对人民造成巨大身心创伤 0.82
负面情感 NA1悲伤 0.86 15.7% 0.80
(NA) NA2缅怀 0.73
NA3惋惜 0.82
观念启示 IA1自然面前,人类渺小 0.74 14.4% 0.75
(IA) IA2生命无常,珍爱生命 0.85
IA3灾难无情,人间有情 0.74
KMO值为0.80>0.6,巴氏球形检验近似卡方值为1 621.04(p=0.000)
满意度 TS1具有高度象征意义 0.76 24.4% 0.79
(TS) TS2给人许多教育启迪 0.78
TS3带来许多情感触动 0.68
TS4体验难以忘记 0.67
TS5参观非常有意义 0.71
重访推荐 BRI1我愿意再来 0.92 23.6% 0.91
意愿 BRI2会带亲朋回来 0.91
(BRI) BRI3会推荐给别人 0.93
保护意愿 PI1希望遗址得到保护 0.82 22.3% 0.86
(PI) PI2愿意参加遗址保护 0.92
PI3愿意捐助遗址保护 0.90
表2  游客集体记忆、满意度、行为意愿测量指标探索性因子分析
潜变量 观测
变量
非标准化
因子载荷
标准化
因子载荷
S.E. t-value
(C.R.)
SMC CR AVE
潜变量 观测
变量
非标准化
因子载荷
标准化
因子载荷
S.E. t-value
(C.R.)
SMC CR AVE
灾难记忆
(DM)
DM1 1.00 0.78 0.61 0.85 0.66
DM2 0.94 0.82 0.067 13.93*** 0.67
DM3 0.90 0.83 0.063 14.12*** 0.69
抗灾记忆
(FDM)
FDM1 1.00 0.83 0.69 0.85 0.66
FDM2 1.08 0.89 0.067 16.24*** 0.79
FDM3 0.81 0.70 0.064 12.73*** 0.48
灾难认知
(DC)
DC1 1.00 0.72 0.52 0.68 0.52
DC2 0.99 0.72 0.132 7.47*** 0.51
负面情感
(NA)
NA1 1.00 0.82 0.67 0.81 0.59
NA2 0.73 0.62 0.069 10.49*** 0.39
NA3 1.05 0.85 0.077 13.50*** 0.72
观念启示
(IA)
IA1 1.00 0.55 0.30 0.78 0.56
IA2 1.60 0.94 0.177 9.03*** 0.88
IA3 1.25 0.70 0.141 8.87*** 0.49
满意度
(TS)
TS1 1.00 0.71 0.50 0.78 0.42
TS2 0.94 0.74 0.085 11.03*** 0.54
TS3 0.72 0.67 0.071 10.16*** 0.45
TS4 0.75 0.57 0.086 8.73*** 0.32
TS5 0.61 0.55 0.072 8.48*** 0.30
保护意愿
(PI)
PI1 1.00 0.69 0.48 0.87 0.69
PI2 1.52 0.92 0.112 13.54*** 0.84
PI3 1.48 0.86 0.111 13.33*** 0.75
重访推荐
意愿
(BRI)
BRI1 1.00 0.84 0.70 0.91 0.77
BRI2 0.95 0.89 0.051 18.68*** 0.79
BRI3 0.96 0.90 0.051 18.80*** 0.81
表3  游客集体记忆、地方满意、地方行为意愿验证性因子分析
指标 绝对拟合指数 简约拟合指数 相对拟合指数
χ2/df AGFI GFI RMR RMSEA PGFI PNFI CFI IFI
标准 1~3 >0.8 >0.8 <0.05 <0.08 >0.5 >0.5 >0.9 >0.9
模型 1.953 0.854 0.884 0.034 0.057 0.702 0.749 0.932 0.933
表4  游客集体记忆、满意度、行为意愿结构方程模型拟合指标
作用路径 UNSTD STD S.E. C.R. P
H1 灾难记忆(DM) 满意度(TS) 0.134 0.167 0.064 2.077 0.038**
H2 抗灾记忆(FDM) 满意度(TS) 0.116 0.158 0.057 2.031 0.042**
H3 灾难认知(DC) 满意度(TS) 0.315 0.246 0.111 2.827 0.005**
H4 负面情感(NA) 满意度(TS) 0.228 0.193 0.092 2.486 0.013**
H5 观念启示(IA) 满意度(TS) 0.342 0.230 0.104 3.298 0.000***
H6 满意度(TS) 保护意愿(PI) 0.410 0.587 0.054 7.549 0.000***
H7 满意度(TS)
重访推荐意愿(BRI) 0.666 0.346 0.131 5.077 0.000***
表5  游客集体记忆、满意度、行为意愿结构方程路径系数估计
[1] Buda D M. The death drive in tourism studies[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2015(50):39~51.
[2] Chen C F, Chen F S. Experience quality,perceived value,satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists[J]. Tourism Management, 2010,31(1):29~35.
[3] Connerton P. How Societies Remember[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
[4] Cook Cook, van Riemsdijk M V. Agents of memorialization:Gunter Demnig’s Stolpersteine and the individual (re-)creation of a Holocaust landscape in Berlin[J]. Journal of Historical Geography, 2014(43):138~147.
[5] Del Bosque I R, Martín M S. Tourist satisfaction a cognitive-affective model[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2008,35(2):551~573.
[6] Dunkley R, Morgan N, Westwood S. Visiting the trenches:Exploring meanings and motivations in battlefield tourism[J]. Tourism Management, 2011,32(4):860~868.
[7] Farrelly F. Revealing the memorial experience through the tourist-led construction of imagined communities[J]. Tourism Management, 2019(75):13~21.
[8] Halbwachs M. On Collective Memory[M]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
[9] Hoelscher S, Alderman D H. Memory and place:Geographies of a critical relationship[J]. Social & Cultural Geography, 2004,5(3):347~355.
[10] Hutton P H. History as an Art of Memory[M]. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1993.
[11] Kang E J, Scott N, Lee T J, et al. Benefits of visiting a ‘dark tourism’ site:The case of the Jeju April 3rd Peace Park,Korea[J]. Tourism Management, 2012,33(2):257~265.
[12] Kidron C A. Being there together:Dark family tourism and the emotive experience of co-presence in the holocaust past[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2013(41):175~194.
[13] Laing J H, Frost W. Presenting narratives of empathy through dark commemorative exhibitions during the Centenary of World War One[J]. Tourism Management, 2019(74):190~199.
[14] Light D. Progress in dark tourism and thanatourism research:An uneasy relationship with heritage tourism[J]. Tourism Management, 2017(61):275~301.
[15] López-Mosquera N, Sánchez M. Direct and indirect effects of received benefits and place attachment in willingness to pay and loyalty in suburban natural areas[J]. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2013(34):27~35.
[16] Marschall S. Tourism and memory[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2012,39(4):2216~2219.
[17] Marschall S. ‘Homesick tourism’:Memory,identity and (be)longing[J]. Current Issues in Tourism, 2015a,18(9):876~892.
[18] Marschall S. Touring memories of the erased city:Memory,tourism and notions of ‘home’[J]. Tourism Geographies, 2015b,17(3):332~349.
[19] Miles S. Battlefield sites as dark tourism attractions:An analysis of experience[J]. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 2014,9(2):134~147.
[20] Mowatt R A, Chancellor C H. Visiting death and life:Dark tourism and slave castles[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2011,38(4):1410~1434.
[21] Nawijn J, Fricke M C. Visitor emotions and behavioral intentions:The case of concentration camp memorial Neuengamme[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2015,17(3):221~228.
[22] Nawijn J, Isaac R K,van Liempt A,et al. Emotion clusters for concentration camp memorials[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2016(61):244~247.
[23] Nora P. Between Memory and History[M]. California: University of California Press, 1989.
[24] Olick J K. Collective memory:The two cultures[J]. Sociological Theory, 1999,17(3):333~348.
[25] Qian L L, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Hit close to home:The moderating effects of past experiences on tourists’ on-site experiences and behavioral intention in post-earthquake site[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2017,22(9):936~950.
[26] Ryan C, Kohli R. The Buried village,New Zealand:An example of dark tourism?[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2006,11(3):211~226.
[27] Schafer S. From geisha girls to the atomic bomb dome:Dark tourism and the formation of Hiroshima memory[J]. Tourist Studies, 2016,16(4):351~366.
[28] Seaton A V. War and thanatourism:Waterloo 1815—1914[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 1999,26(1):130~158.
[29] Stone P R. A dark tourism spectrum:Towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites,attractions and exhibitions[J]. Tourism, 2006,54(2):145~160.
[30] Stone P R. Dark tourism and significant other death:Towards a model of mortality mediation[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2012,39(3):1565~1587.
[31] Tang Y. Dark touristic perception:Motivation,experience and benefits interpreted from the visit to seismic memorial sites in Sichuan province[J]. Journal of Mountain Science, 2014,11(5):1326~1341.
[32] Tang Y. Contested narratives at the Hanwang earthquake memorial park:Where ghost industrial town and seismic memorial meet[J]. Geoheritage, 2019,11(2):561~575.
[33] Winter C. The shrine of remembrance Melbourne:A short study of visitors’ experiences[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2009a,11(6):553~565.
doi: 10.1002/jtr.728
[34] Winter C. Tourism,social memory and the Great War[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2009b,36(4):607~626.
doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.05.002
[35] Yan B J, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Investigating the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism space:A case study of the Beichuan earthquake relics,China[J]. Tourism Management, 2016(53):108~121.
[36] Zhang H L, Yang Y, Zheng C H, et al. Too dark to revisit? The role of past experiences and intrapersonal constraints[J]. Tourism Management, 2016(54):452~464.
[37] Zheng C H, Zhang J, Zhang H L, et al. Exploring sub-dimensions of intrapersonal constraints to visiting “dark tourism” sites:A comparison of participants and non-participants[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2017,22(1):21~33.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2016.1175489
[38] 钱莉莉, 张捷, 郑春晖, 等. 地理学视角下的集体记忆研究综述[J]. 人文地理, 2015,30(6):7~12.
[39] 钱莉莉, 张捷, 郑春晖, 等. 基于集体记忆的震后北川老县城空间重构[J]. 人文地理, 2018,33(6):53~61.
[40] 钱莉莉, 张捷, 郑春晖, 等. 灾难地居民集体记忆、地方认同、地方保护意愿关系研究——以汶川地震北川老县城为例[J]. 地理研究, 2019,38(4):998~1002.
[41] 吴明隆. 结构方程模型:AMOS的操作与应用[M]. 重庆: 重庆大学出版社, 2010.
[1] 王金伟. 黑色旅游学术研究的理论前沿与本土实践[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 1-5.
[2] 唐勇,钟美玲,王尧树,秦宏瑶,傅滢滢. 汶川地震黑色旅游地社区居民地方感聚类研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 28-42.
[3] 郑春晖,张捷. 自然灾难地居民风险知觉与旅游支持度的关系研究——以汶川大地震重灾区北川和都江堰为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 43-58.
[4] 王金伟,王国权,王欣. 黑色旅游的批判性反思与理论建构[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 6-22.
[5] 颜丙金,刘俊,黄艳娴. 黑色旅游游客体验及其类型差异性研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 75-90.
[6] 龙江智,段浩然,何洋. 古镇情境下旅游涉入、地方依恋对游客满意度的影响研究——以体验质量为中介[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(4): 56-73.
[7] 梁增贤. 主观幸福感的理论源流及其在旅游研究中的应用:一个批判性文献综述[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 71-92.
[8] 李秋云, 徐虹, 吕兴洋. 国内外饭店业员工工作满意度测量方法与工具述评——基于国内外2000—2012年实证研究的分析[J]. 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(1): 80-105.