Please wait a minute...

微信公众号

编辑部微信号

旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (3): 1-37    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.168
研究论文     
文化距离何以影响旅游者?——文献反思与研究展望
王佳果1,2(),郑密1,黄琼慧3,吴忠军1,2
1.桂林理工大学旅游与风景园林学院 广西桂林 541004
2.广西旅游产业研究院 广西桂林 541004
3.云南大学民族学与社会学学院 云南昆明 650091
How Does Cultural Distance Affect Tourists? Literature Review and Research Prospects
WANG Jiaguo1,2(),ZHENG Mi1,HUANG Qionghui3,WU Zhongjun1,2
1. College of Tourism & Landscape Architecture, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
2. Guangxi Tourism Industry Research Institute, Guilin 541004, China
3. College of Ethnology and Sociology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
 全文: PDF(24302 KB)   HTML
摘要:

文化距离对旅游者的影响是一个新兴的重要议题,已积累了相当数量的研究文献,但学界对此议题缺乏系统全面的回顾和反思。本研究主要围绕文化距离的构念测量、影响环节、解释理论等方面进行文献梳理分析,结果发现:(1)旅游文化距离研究主要有两大理论来源,分别是跨文化管理领域基于群体价值观念差异的文化距离研究和跨文化交流领域基于个体主观感知差异的文化距离研究,前者对旅游研究影响大,后者开始受到旅游学界重视;(2)旅游情境下的文化距离是一个颇有潜力的研究议题,在国际旅游研究方面已积累了较为丰富的实证研究成果;(3)由于缺乏适宜的构念测量、系统的研究框架和有效的解释理论,在不同旅游情境下,文化距离到底对旅游者有何种影响、以何种机制对哪些行为环节产生影响等问题尚无清晰结论。为此,本文在现有研究的基础上提出TPCD构念定义和文化距离影响旅游者行为的研究框架,并指出未来研究的若干方向,以期为今后的理论研究和产业实践提供有益思路。

关键词: 文化距离感知文化距离文献综述旅游者行为    
Abstract:

The influence of cultural distance on tourists' behavior is an emerging and important research topic, and a considerable amount of research literature has appeared. Nevertheless, researchers have neglected to offer a systematic and comprehensive review and reflection on this topic. This paper reviews and analyzes the construct measurement, influence mechanism, interpretation theory, and other aspects. The results suggest: (1) There are two different orientations in the study of cultural distance in tourism research—one based on the differences of collective values in the domain of cross-cultural management, the other on individual subjective perception in the field of cross-cultural communication. The former has a great influence on tourism research, and tourism academia has recently begun to attach importance to the research on perceived cultural distance. (2) Cultural distance in the background of tourism is a huge potential research direction that has accumulated abundant empirical research in the field of transnational tourism. (3) The lack of appropriate measurement of the construct, systematic research framework, and effective interpretation theory has prevented clear conclusions on the kind of influence cultural distance has on tourists and the kind of mechanism affecting aspects of behavior in different tourists' activity. Therefore, based on existing research, this paper offers a construct definition of tourists' perceived cultural distance (TPCD) and a conceptual research framework that describes the influence of cultural distance on tourists' behavior, pointing out some major directions for future research and providing useful ideas and contributions for future theoretical research and industry development.

Key words: cultural distance    perceived cultural distance    literature review    tourists' behavior
收稿日期: 2020-09-01 出版日期: 2021-07-14
作者简介: 王佳果(1983— ),男,河南南阳人,博士,桂林理工大学旅游与风景园林学院助理研究员,研究方向:民族旅游、旅游人类学。E-mail: 6616063@glut.edu.cn|郑 密(1997— ),女,四川内江人,桂林理工大学旅游与风景园林学院硕士研究生,研究方向:旅游规划与管理。|黄琼慧(1997— ),女,广西北海人,云南大学民族学与社会学学院硕士研究生,研究方向:民族旅游。|吴忠军(1965— ),男,广西桂林人,博士,桂林理工大学旅游与风景园林学院教授、博士生导师,研究方向:民族旅游、旅游规划与管理。
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
王佳果
郑密
黄琼慧
吴忠军

引用本文:

王佳果,郑密,黄琼慧,吴忠军. 文化距离何以影响旅游者?——文献反思与研究展望[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(3): 1-37.

WANG Jiaguo,ZHENG Mi,HUANG Qionghui,WU Zhongjun. How Does Cultural Distance Affect Tourists? Literature Review and Research Prospects. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(3): 1-37.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.168        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I3/1

图1  1998—2020年旅游文化距离文献数量年度趋势
跨文化管理领域
Cross-Cultural Management
跨文化交流领域
Intercultural Communication
理论基础 Kluckhohn、Hofstede等人的文化价值观理论 Babiker等人的文化距离理论
代表人物 Hofstede、Trompenaars、Steward、Adler、Schein、Inglehart、Schwartz等 Babiker、Vijver、Ward等
研究视角 群体文化价值观念差异视角 个体主观感知文化差异视角
研究层面 国家/区域群体层面 个体层面
研究对象 以国别群体为单位,如跨国企业管理者、国际消费者、跨国旅游者等文化群体 国际留学生、跨国企业员工等文化个体
测量内容及工具 文化价值观量表和文化距离计算公式(KS指数、欧氏指数等) 感知文化距离量表和文化距离指数(CDI)
主要研究内容 文化距离对企业绩效、企业行为、企业管理者行为、消费者行为、旅游者行为的影响 文化距离对个体文化适应、互动交往的影响
研究领域 国际商务、跨国投资、市场营销、国际旅游等 国际教育和国际商务中的跨文化交流行为
表1  跨文化管理和跨文化交流领域的文化距离研究取向
测量方法
Measurement Methods
指标类型
Indicator Type
维度/指标
Dimension/Indicator
代表文献
Representative Literature
研究领域
Research Field
备注说明
Remark Column
测量方法
Measurement Methods
指标类型a
Indicator Type
维度/指标
Dimension/Indicator
代表文献
Representative Literature
研究领域
Research Field
备注说明
Remark Column
PCD
多维测量
形成型 10维度:气候、服饰、语言、受教育水平、食物、宗教信仰、物质享受、休闲、家庭结构与家庭生活、亲属关系/恋爱与婚姻 Babiker、Cox和Miller(1980 跨文化交流 最早的PCD量表,对后续研究影响重大
形成型 12维度:食物、气候、衣着、价值观等 Ward和Kennedy(1992
Ward和Kennedy(1993
跨文化交流 Ward的PCD量表根据Babiker、Cox和Miller(1980)的CDI提出
形成型 10维度:气候、服饰、语言、教育、饮食、宗教、生活条件、休闲、家庭结构、恋爱与婚姻 Mumford和Babiker(1998 跨文化交流 在Babiker、Cox和Miller(1980)提出的CDI的基础上修正改进
反映型 3维度(TPCD):文化保留、行为特征、社会特征 Fan、Zhang和Jenkins等(2017 旅游 作者新开发量表,前期进行了访谈、编码、专家意见征询,并进行探索性因子分析和验证性因子分析
反映型 4维度(TPCD):社会环境、人际关系、生活安排、言语交际 Lee、Chen和Liou等(2018 旅游 作者声称其TPCD是根据Spradley和Philips(1972)的文化再适应评定量表(cultural readjustment rating questionnaire,CRRQ)改进的
PCD
多维测量
反映型 3维度(TPCD):TPCD1(世界观、政治意识形态、社会风俗、卫生标准、服装);TPCD2(文化活动、宗教信仰、食物、娱乐活动、朋友之间的互动、生活节奏);TPCD3(家庭生活、陌生人之间的互动、语言、生活水平、文明程度) Yu、Li和Xiao(2020 旅游 此量表根据Ward和Rana-Deuba(1999)的适应指数改编,并增加了Fan、Zhang和Jenkins等(2017)的3个PCD指标
PCD
单维测量
反映型 1题项:根据受访者对两个国家文化差异的看法对目标国家进行PCD远近排序 Boyacigiller(1990);Rao和Schmidt(1998);Ng、Lee和Soutar(2007 跨文化管理、旅游
反映型 4题项:语言、一般性的商业惯例、政治与法律制度、市场基础设施 Lee(1998 跨文化管理 作者混淆了心理距离和文化距离,在Johanson和Vahlne(1977)的心理距离的基础上提出具有4个指标的PCD量表,并进行了验证性因子分析
形成型/反映型 8题项:必须要遵守的日常习惯、一般生活条件、医疗系统的使用、所在国家的交通系统、一般生活成本、食物的种类与质量、气候、一般居住条件 Black和Stephens(1989);覃玉荣和周敏波(2013);王泽宇、王国锋和井润田(2013);蔡妤荻(2018);Stoermer、Lauring和Selmer(2020 跨文化
交流/跨
文化管理
Black和Stephens(1989)最早使用cultural novelty表达文化差异程度,并根据Torbiörn的研究发展出包含8个题项的量表,部分后续研究者直接将其表述为PCD量表
形成型 6指标:宗教与仪式、价值观念、信仰、规范、风俗、开展业务的方式 Chen、Kirkman和Kim等(2010);胡善贵、曹瑞斓和刘芳等(2017 跨文化管理 作者根据Shenkar(2001)对文化距离的定义,结合Adler的理论提出包含6指标的量表,但没有展示量表开发验证过程
形成型 14题项:事务、语言、生活节奏、文化信仰和规范等 Cheng和Leung(2013 跨文化管理 此量表根据Ward和Kennedy(1993)的文化适应指数修改而来
PCD
单维测量
反映型 5题项:种族、民族、语言、风俗与文化、宗教信仰 Sharma、Tam和Kim(2012);Tam、Sharma和Kim(2014);Sharma和Wu(2015);Ang、Liou和Wei(2018 跨文化管理 作者声称根据Sousa和Bradley(2006)的心理距离量表以及Ng、Lee和Soutar(2007)的研究成果编制,这显然是不太严谨的做法。Sousa和Bradley(2006)原文的目的正是指出心理距离和文化距离并不等同,而Sharma等人在后续研究中把Sousa和Bradley用于测量心理距离的量表当作文化距离量表使用
形成型 12题项:气候、自然环境、社会环境、生活、便利性、饮食、家庭生活、社会规范、价值与信念、人与人的关系、友情、语言 Demes和Geeraert(2013 跨文化交流 Demes和Geeraert(2013)在文中开发的感知文化距离量表和社会文化适应量表是相同的,仅对问题的题干表述进行了区别,该量表主要基于以往的社会文化适应量表和文化距离指数CDI进行开发
形成型 15题项:母语、经济水平、宗教信仰等 Mahfud、Badea和Verkuyten等(2018 跨文化交流 作者声称自己的PCD量表是根据Babiker、Cox和Miller(1980)以及Triandis(1994)等人的研究提出的
反映型 1题项:被试者回答的感知文化差异程度 Drogendijk和Slangen(2006);Liu、Li和Cárdenas等(2018 跨文化管理
表2  感知文化距离和旅游者感知文化距离构念测量一览表
研究者(年份)
Researcher (Year)
文化距离计算方法
Calculation Method of Cultural Distance
研究方法
Research Method
研究对象Research Object 研究问题
Research Problem
主要研究结论
Main Research Conclusions
客源地Departure 目的地Destination
Jackson(2000 Hofstede文化维度 —— 澳大利亚的出入境游客 CD对旅游者目的地选择行为的影响 澳大利亚人会选择与本国文化背景相似的目的地,该国也会吸引文化相似的他国游客
Jackson(2001 文化多样性指数 相关分析 环太平洋地区21个国家的出境游客 CD对旅游者目的地选择行为的影响 CD与旅游者目的地选择没有显著相关关系,真正对其起作用的是客源国特定的文化特征
McKercher和Chow(2001 基于国别/历史/文化/语言等因素的CD聚类测量 相关分析 3个亚洲国家/
地区和3个西方国家/地区
中国香港 CD对不同国家游客文化旅游活动参与的影响 来自CD大的国家的游客相较于CD小的客源市场对参加文化旅游更感兴趣
Crotts(2004 UAI得分之差 回归分析 美国 26个非美国国家 国家文化差异对海外旅行行为的影响 CD对旅游者行为影响不显著
Suh和Gartner(2004 基于国别的CD聚类测量 回归分析 欧洲、北美、日本 韩国首尔 国际城市旅行者偏好与旅游者行为的关系 空间距离可以用来代替CD,来自近地的游客倾向于考虑城市旅游更多的“有形”属性,来自远方的游客则认为“无形”属性最有价值
Crotts和McKercher(2006 通过PCD测量并参考Hofstede文化维度中的ICI/PDI得分 回归分析 美国、澳大利亚、新加坡等14个国家 中国香港 CD对首次到访中国香港的国际游客满意度和重游意愿的影响 采用包价旅游形式的高CD国家的游客和独立自由行的低CD国家的游客,具有更高的满意度和重游意愿
Ng、Lee和Soutar(2007 KS指数/聚类文化距离指数/语言距离/文化多样性指数/PCD 相关分析 澳大利亚 英国、美国等11个
国家
CD对澳大利亚游客出境旅游目的地选择的影响 旅游者对不同目的地国家的出游意愿与CD呈负相关
赵宝春和田志龙(2008 基于国别的CD聚类测量 方差分析 中国出境游客 CD和目的地发达程度对中国游客出境游目的地选择的影响 一致偏好CD大的目的地,人文景观感知程度高(低)的游客较愿意选择欠发达(发达)目的地
钱晓慧(2008 PCD测量 相关分析 中国出境游客(日本、英国、新加坡等6国)
中国国内游客(黄山、杭州、张家界、成都、昆明)
PCD对中国出境游客/国内游客目的地选择的影响 PCD对于国内游客目的地选择行为的影响作用呈现两头大、中间小的特征,而出境游客更加偏好文化距离中等的目的地
Kastenholz(2010 基于国别的CD聚类测量 回归分析 葡萄牙、西班
牙、英国等
葡萄牙北部 “文化亲近”对旅游目的地形象感知的影响 来自文化亲近度适中的客源地旅游者对目的地形象评价最高
Moufakkir(2011 主观经验判断 质性分析 德国和部分亚洲国家 荷兰 PCD在东道主凝视中的调节作用 主客之间的CD越小(大),游客对感知到的不端行为的容忍度越低(高)
Yang和Wong(2012 KS指数 相关分析/回归分析 澳大利亚、加拿大等18个国家 中国 CD对中国入境旅游流的影响 CD对入境旅游流量有显著的负面影响,且UAI具有调节作用
Ahn和McKercher(2015 改进的KS指数 回归分析 日本、加拿大等17个国家 中国香港 CD对访港国际游客行为的影响 游客概况、景点和满意度变量与CD显著相关,而游客量、旅游概况和大部分支出变量与CD没有显著相关关系
杨旸、刘宏博和李想(2016 马氏距离 相关分析 中国和日本的出境游客 CD对旅游者出境旅游目的地选择的影响 日本居民在过往和计划前往目的地的选择上都显著偏好与日本文化总体差异大的国家,但中国大陆居民在出境目的地选择上受CD的影响较小
周玲强和毕娟(2017 KS指数 回归分析 中国入境游客 CD对国际旅游目的地选择行为的影响 CD与国际旅游者目的地选择行为之间呈现出倒U形的非线性关系,且中国对与中国CD值为3.6左右的国家居民最具吸引力
Fan、Zhang和Jenkins等(2017 PCD测量 结构方程模型 到访内地的香港游客 旅游情境中主客互动对PCD的影响 接触质量对游客的PCD产生负面影响,社交型接触对PCD有负向影响,服务型接触对PCD有正向影响
Bi和Lehto(2018 KS指数 相关分析 中国出境游客 CD & PCD与旅游者目的地选择行为之间的关系 CD和旅游者目的地选择的关系为倒U形曲线,中国游客出境旅游的最优CD为2.875 7
Aydın和Sezerel(2018 结构性访谈 质性分析 17位旅游博主的博客 CD对游客国际目的地选择的影响 CD是旅行动机和目的地选择之间的调节变量,地理距离的增加会影响人们对CD的感知
Azimi 和Hanser(2018 基于国别、文化等因素的CD聚类测量 模糊定性比较分析 南亚、东北亚和中东的5个国家的入境游客 民族文化差异对亚洲和中东游客目的地选择的影响 文化价值观和CD会影响游客行为,且CD越大目的地选择的意愿更大
Yang et al.(2018 马氏距离 回归分析 中国大陆出境游客 CD对中国大陆游客国际目的地选择的影响 CD效应具有相当大的个体异质性,多数情况下CD的正负效应在中国居民中并存
Liu、Li和Cárdenas等(2018 PCD测量 回归分析/相关分析 中国大陆出境游客 PCD对国际目的地选择的影响 PCD对国际目的地选择没有重大影响,但在文化动机调节下,PCD对文化动机水平较高的受访者的目的地选择产生积极影响,而对文化动机水平较低的受访者产生负面影响
Yang et al.(2018 KS指数 回归分析 94个国家/地区之间的国际旅游流 CD对国际游客流量的影响 CD对国际游客流量产生了负面影响,在具有历史殖民联系的国家之间影响更小
王丽、王诚庆和孙梦阳(2018 KS指数 回归分析 62 个国家和地区 中国北京 CD对北京入境游客时空行为的影响 CD对游客停留时间、游客来京月份、游客访问景点数量及偏好有显著影响
刘祥艳、杨丽琼和吕兴洋(2018 KS指数 回归分析 中国 99 个国家和地区 CD对中国出境旅游流的影响 CD对中国出境旅游的影响呈U形的非线性关系
Bi和Gu(2019 PCD测量 结构方程模型 中国出境游客 CD对国际游客旅游意愿的影响 CD通过影响游客对目的地国家的新颖性感知和风险感知来双向影响游客的旅游意愿
Moufakkir(2019 主观经验判断 质性分析 中国 英国(伦敦唐人街) CD对主人凝视和主客交往的影响 CD以不同的方式调节了主人的凝视,影响了游客对文化的刻板印象与游客的旅行方式
Yu、Li和Xiao(2020 PCD测量 结构方程模型 非杭州居民或非本地人 中国杭州 PCD与游客存在主义真实性的关系 PCD与存在主义真实性无关,存在主义真实性与享乐主义、幸福感呈正相关
Manosuthi、Lee和Han(2020 KS指数/Kandogan指数 结构方程模型/潜增长模型 美国等9个长途市场和日本等8个短途市场 中国香港 距离(地理距离和CD)对在中国香港的国际游客行为的影响 CD对游客行为有显著影响,但在整个市场中,物理距离对游客需求的影响明显高于CD
Jackman、Lorde和Naitram等(2020 基于语言距离的测度方法 回归分析 144个国家游客 巴巴多斯 地理距离、CD、异地关系距离、经济距离和气候距离对游客停留时间的影响 游客旅游目的地停留时间随地理距离、CD和气候距离的增加而增加,而与经济距离呈负相关
Fan、Qiu和Jenkins(2020 PCD测量 结构方程模型/质性分析 上海、北京、杭州、重庆 中国香港 PCD在社会接触中介下对旅游态度的直接和间接影响 PCD可直接和通过更多社会接触间接影响游客的旅行态度
Liu、Fan和Qiu(2021 马氏距离 回归分析 全世界范围内72个目的地(地区) CD对旅游需求的影响 CD与旅游需求之间存在负相关关系,但旅游需求对CD变化的敏感度较低;CD对旅游需求的影响因时间、客源市场、旅游线路受欢迎程度的不同而不同
表3  文化距离在旅游研究中的代表性研究
图2  旅游文化距离“三维”影响因素分析框架
图3  “文化距离—旅游者行为”传导影响机制概念框架图
[1] Adler N J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior [M]. Boston,Mass: Kent Pub. Co., 1986:242.
[2] Ahn M J, McKercher B. The effect of cultural distance on tourism:A study of international visitors to Hong Kong[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2015, 20(1):94~113.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2013.866586
[3] Andreu R, Claver E, Quer D. Destination attributes and Chinese outbound tourism to Europe[J]. Journal of China Tourism Research, 2014, 10(3):275~291.
doi: 10.1080/19388160.2013.855692
[4] Ang T, Liou R S, Wei S Q. Perceived cultural distance in intercultural service encounters:Does customer participation matter?[J]. Journal of Services Marketing, 2018, 32(5):547~558.
doi: 10.1108/JSM-06-2017-0211
[5] Aydın S, Sezerel H. A phenomenological approach of blogger's view on cultural distance[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2018, 23(5):450~462.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2018.1466815
[6] Azimi Hashemi M, Hanser E. Cultural antecedents of inbound tourism in five Asian and middle east countries:A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2018, 20(6):698~712.
doi: 10.1002/jtr.v20.6
[7] Babiker I E, Cox J L, Miller P M. The measurement of cultural distance and its relationship to medical consultations,symptomatology and examination performance of overseas students at Edinburgh University[J]. Social Psychiatry, 1980, 15(3):109~116.
doi: 10.1007/BF00578141
[8] Bi J, Gu C X. Cultural distance and international tourists' intention to visit a destination[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2019, 24(8):839~849.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2019.1635503
[9] Bi J, Lehto X Y. Impact of cultural distance on international destination choices:The case of Chinese outbound travelers[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2018, 20(1):50~59.
doi: 10.1002/jtr.v20.1
[10] Black J S, Stephens G K. The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments[J]. Journal of Management, 1989, 15(4):529~544.
doi: 10.1177/014920638901500403
[11] Boyacigiller N. The role of expatriates in the management of interdependence complexity and risk in multinational corporations[J]. Journal of International Business Studies, 1990, 21(3):357~381.
doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490825
[12] Boylu Y, Tasci A D A, Gartner W C. Worker and consumer face-off on cultural distance and satisfaction[J]. Tourism Review, 2009, 64(4):37~52.
doi: 10.1108/16605370911004566
[13] Chen C F, Tsai D. How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?[J]. Tourism Management, 2007, 28(4):1115~1122.
doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.07.007
[14] Chen G, Kirkman B L, Kim K, et al. When does cross-cultural motivation enhance expatriate effectiveness? A multilevel investigation of the moderating roles of subsidiary support and cultural distance[J]. Academy of Management Journal, 2010, 53(5):1110~1130.
doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.54533217
[15] Chen J S, Gursoy D. An investigation of tourists' destination loyalty and preferences[J]. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2001, 13(2):79~85.
doi: 10.1108/09596110110381870
[16] Cheng C Y, Leung A K Y. Revisiting the multicultural experience-creativity link:The effects of perceived cultural distance and comparison mind-set[J]. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2013, 4(4):475~482.
doi: 10.1177/1948550612462413
[17] Cohen E. A phenomenology of tourist experiences[J]. Sociology, 1979, 13(2):179~201.
doi: 10.1177/003803857901300203
[18] Crompton J L. Motivations for pleasure vacation[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 1979, 6(4):408~424.
doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5
[19] Crotts J C. The effect of cultural distance on overseas travel behaviors[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2004, 43(1):83~88.
doi: 10.1177/0047287504265516
[20] Crotts J C, McKercher B. The adaptation to cultural distance and its influence on visitor satisfaction:The case of first-time visitors to Hong Kong[J]. Tourism Analysis, 2006, 10(4):385~391.
doi: 10.3727/108354206776162750
[21] Demes K A, Geeraert N. Measures matter:Scales for adaptation,cultural distance,and acculturation orientation revisited[J]. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2013, 45(1):91~109.
doi: 10.1177/0022022113487590
[22] Drogendijk R, Slangen A. Hofstede,Schwartz,or managerial perceptions? The effects of different cultural distance measures on establishment mode choices by multinational enterprises[J]. International Business Review, 2006, 15(4):361~380.
doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2006.05.003
[23] Esiyok B, Çakar M, Kurtulmuşoğlu F B. The effect of cultural distance on medical tourism[J]. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2017, 6(1):66~75.
[24] Fan D X F, Qiu H Q, Jenkins C L, et al. Towards a better tourist-host relationship:The role of social contact between tourists' perceived cultural distance and travel attitude[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2020(28):1~25.
[25] Fan D X F, Zhang H Q, Jenkins C L, et al. Does tourist-host social contact reduce perceived cultural distance?[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2017, 56(8):998~1010.
doi: 10.1177/0047287517696979
[26] Gemar G, Soler I P, Villar H. Analysis of cultural distance's influence on intentions to visit Spain as a tourist destination[J]. Tourism & Management Studies, 2019, 15(2):21~31.
[27] Goeldner C R, Ritchie J R B. Tourism:Principles,Practices,Philosophies [M].9th ed. New York: Wiley, 2002:365~366.
[28] Goeldner C R, Ritchie J R B. Tourism:Principles,Practices,Philosophies [M]. 12th ed. Hoboken,NJ: Wiley, 2012:286~288.
[29] Guachalla A. Perception and experience of urban areas for cultural tourism:A social constructivist approach in Covent Garden[J]. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2018, 18(3):297~308.
doi: 10.1177/1467358416646820
[30] Hsu S Y, Woodside A G, Marshall R. Critical tests of multiple theories of cultures' consequences:Comparing the usefulness of models by Hofstede,Inglehart and baker,Schwartz,Steenkamp,as well as GDP and distance for explaining overseas tourism behavior[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2013, 52(6):679~704.
doi: 10.1177/0047287512475218
[31] Inglehart R. Modernization and Postmodernization:Cultural, Economic, and Political Change in 43 Societies [M]. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020.
[32] Johanson J, Vahlne E. The internationalization process of the firm:A model of knowledge development and increasing foreign commitments[J]. Journal of lnternational Business Studies, 1977, 8:23~32.
[33] Io M U. Understanding the core attractiveness of performing arts heritage to international tourists[J]. Tourism Geographies:An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment, 2019, 21(4):687~705.
[34] Iso-Ahola S E. Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation:A rejoinder[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 1982, 9(2):256~262.
doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(82)90049-4
[35] Jackman M, Lorde T, Naitram S, et al. Distance matters:The impact of physical and relative distance on pleasure tourists' length of stay in Barbados[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2020(80):102794.
[36] Jackson M. Cultural influences on tourist destination choices of 21 Pacific Rim nations[C]// CAUTHE 2001: Capitalising on Research;Proceedings of the 11th Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference . Canberra,A. C. T.: University of Canberra Press, 2001:185~194.
[37] Jackson M S. Predicting Australian mass tourism flow using Hofstede's cultural model[C]// CAUTHE 2000: Peak Performance in Tourism and Hospitality Research; Proceedings of the Tenth Australian Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference . Melbourne: La Trobe University, 2000:47~56.
[38] Johnson T J, Garman A N. Demand for international medical travel to the USA[J]. Tourism Economics, 2015, 21(5):1061~1077.
doi: 10.5367/te.2014.0393
[39] Kastenholz E. ‘Cultural proximity' as a determinant of destination image[J]. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2010, 16(4):313~322.
doi: 10.1177/1356766710380883
[40] Kluckhohn F R, Strodtbeck F L. Variations in Value Orientations [M]. Oxford: Row,Peterson, 1961.
[41] Kotler P, Keller K L. Marketing Management[M]. 13th ed. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson Education, 2009:167~174.
[42] Lee C H, Chen H S, Liou G B, et al. Evaluating international tourists' perceptions on cultural distance and recreation demand[J]. Sustainability, 2018, 10(12):4360.
doi: 10.3390/su10124360
[43] Lee D J. The effect of cultural distance on the relational exchange between exporters and importers[J]. Journal of Global Marketing, 1998, 11(4):7~22.
[44] Lepp A, Gibson H. Tourist roles,perceived risk and international tourism[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2003, 30(3):606~624.
doi: 10.1016/S0160-7383(03)00024-0
[45] Leung D, Woo G J, Ly T P. The effects of physical and cultural distance on tourist satisfaction:A case study of local-based airlines,public transportation,and government services in Hong Kong[J]. Journal of China Tourism Research, 2013, 9(2):218~242.
doi: 10.1080/19388160.2013.784572
[46] Liu A Y, Fan D X F, Qiu R T R. Does culture affect tourism demand? A global perspective[J]. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 2021, 45(1):192~214.
[47] Liu H B. Understanding destination choice from a cultural distance perspective[D]. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 2014.
[48] Liu H B, Li X, Cárdenas D A, et al. Perceived cultural distance and international destination choice:The role of destination familiarity,geographic distance,and cultural motivation[J]. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2018(9):300~309.
[49] Ma J, Wang S J, Hao W. Does cultural similarity matter? Extending the animosity model from a new perspective[J]. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2012, 29(5):319~332.
doi: 10.1108/07363761211247442
[50] MacKenzie S B, Podsakoff P M, Podsakoff N P. Construct measurement and validation procedures in MIS and behavioral research:Integrating new and existing techniques[J]. MIS Quarterly, 2011, 35(2):293~334.
doi: 10.2307/23044045
[51] Mahfud Y, Badea C, Verkuyten M, et al. Multiculturalism and attitudes toward immigrants:The impact of perceived cultural distance[J]. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2018, 49(6):945~958.
doi: 10.1177/0022022117730828
[52] Manosuthi N, Lee J S, Han H. Impact of distance on the arrivals,behaviours and attitudes of international tourists in Hong Kong:A longitudinal approach[J]. Tourism Management, 2020(78):103963.
[53] Manrai L A, Manrai A K. Hofstede's cultural dimensions and tourist behaviors:A review and conceptual framework[J]. Journal of Economics, Finance & Administrative Science, 2011, 16(31):23~48.
[54] McIntosh R W, Goeldner C R. Tourism:Principles,Practices,Philosophies [M]. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984:190.
[55] McKercher B, Chow B S M. Cultural distance and participation in cultural tourism[J]. Pacific Tourism Review, 2001, 5(1):23~32.
[56] Moufakkir O. The role of cultural distance in mediating the host gaze[J]. Tourist Studies, 2011, 11(1):73~89.
doi: 10.1177/1468797611412065
[57] Moufakkir O. The liminal gaze:Chinese restaurant workers gazing upon Chinese tourists dining in London's Chinatown[J]. Tourist Studies, 2019, 19(1):89~109.
doi: 10.1177/1468797617737998
[58] Mumford D B, Babiker I E. Validation of a self-administered version of the cultural distance questionnaire among young British volunteers working overseas[J]. European Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 12(4):244~253.
[59] Ng S I, Lee J A, Soutar G N. Tourists' intention to visit a country:The impact of cultural distance[J]. Tourism Management, 2007, 28(6):1497~1506.
doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.11.005
[60] Parsons T. The Social System[M]. Glencoe: Free Press, 1951:43~44.
[61] Plog S C. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity[J]. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 1974, 14(4):55~58.
doi: 10.1177/001088047401400409
[62] Qian J W, Law R, Wei J W. Effect of cultural distance on tourism:A study of pleasure visitors in Hong Kong[J]. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 2018, 19(2):269~284.
[63] Radojevic T, Stanisic N, Stanic N. Solo travellers assign higher ratings than families:Examining customer satisfaction by demographic group[J]. Tourism Management Perspectives, 2015(16):247~258.
[64] Rao A S, Schmidt S M. A behavioral perspective on negotiating international alliance[J]. Journal of International Business Studies, 1998, 29(4):665~694.
doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490047
[65] Reisinger Y, Turner L W. Cross-Cultural Behaviour in Tourism: Concepts and Analysis [M]. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
[66] Rosenberg M J, Hovland C I, McGuire W J, et al. Attitude Organization and Change:An Analysis of Consistency among Attitude Components. (Yales Studies in Attitude and Communication.),Vol. Ⅲ [M]. Oxford,England: Yale University Press, 1960:1~14.
[67] Schwartz S H, Bilsky W. Toward a universal psychological structure of human values[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1987, 53(3):550~562.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.53.3.550
[68] Sharma P, Tam J L M, Kim N. Intercultural service encounters (ICSE):An extended framework and empirical validation[J]. Journal of Services Marketing, 2012, 26(7):521~534.
doi: 10.1108/08876041211266495
[69] Sharma P, Wu Z. Consumer ethnocentrism vs. intercultural competence as moderators in intercultural service encounters[J]. Journal of Services Marketing, 2015, 29(2):93~102.
doi: 10.1108/JSM-12-2013-0330
[70] Shenkar O. Cultural distance revisited:Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences[J]. Journal of International Business Studies, 2001, 32(3):519~535.
doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490982
[71] Shi T T, He B, Li J. Exotic or home? Tourists' perception of guest houses,guest houses loyalty,and destination loyalty in remote tourist destinations[J]. Sustainability, 2019, 11(14):3835.
doi: 10.3390/su11143835
[72] Sirgy M J, Su C T. Destination image,self-congruity,and travel behavior:Toward an integrative model[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2000, 38(4):340~352.
doi: 10.1177/004728750003800402
[73] Spradley J P, Phillips M. Cultural and stress:A quantitative analysis[J]. American anthropologist, 1972, 74(3):518~529.
doi: 10.1525/aa.1972.74.issue-3
[74] Sousa C M P, Bradley F. Cultural distance and psychic distance:Two peas in a pod?[J]. Journal of International Marketing, 2006, 14(1):49~70.
doi: 10.1509/jimk.14.1.49
[75] Stoermer S, Lauring J, Selmer J. Job characteristics and perceived cultural novelty:Exploring the consequences for expatriate academics' job satisfaction[J]. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2020(31):1~27.
[76] Su N, Min H, Chen M H, et al. Cultural characteristics and tourist shopping spending[J]. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 2018, 42(8):1210~1231.
[77] Suanet I, Van de Vijver F J R,. Perceived cultural distance and acculturation among exchange students in Russia[J]. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 2009, 19(3):182~197.
[78] Suh Y K, Gartner W C. Preferences and trip expenditures:A conjoint analysis of visitors to Seoul,Korea[J]. Tourism Management, 2004, 25(1):127~137.
doi: 10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00056-6
[79] Tam J, Sharma P, Kim N. Examining the role of attribution and intercultural competence in intercultural service encounters[J]. Journal of Services Marketing, 2014, 28(2):159~170.
doi: 10.1108/JSM-12-2012-0266
[80] Triandis H C. Culture and Social Behavior[M]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994:330.
[81] Trompenaars F. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business [M]. Burr Ridge,Illinois: Irwin Professional Pub., 1994.
[82] Ward C, Kennedy A. Locus of control,mood disturbance,and social difficulty during cross-cultural transitions[J]. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1992, 16(2):175~194.
doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(92)90017-O
[83] Ward C, Kennedy A. Psychological and socio-cultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions:A comparison of secondary students overseas and at home[J]. International Journal of Psychology, 1993, 28(2):129~147.
doi: 10.1080/00207599308247181
[84] Ward C, Kennedy A. The measurement of sociocultural adaptation[J]. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1999, 23(4):659~677.
doi: 10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0
[85] Ward C, Rana-Deuba A. Acculturation and adaptation revisited[J]. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1999, 30(4):422~442.
doi: 10.1177/0022022199030004003
[86] Watkins L, Gnoth J. The value orientation approach to understanding culture[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2011, 38(4):1274~1299.
doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.003
[87] Weiermair K, Fuchs M. The impact of cultural distance on perceived service quality gaps[J]. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 2000, 1(2):59~75.
[88] Wu H C, Chen X L, Cheng C C. Relationships between experiential cultural distance,experiential relationship quality and experiential future intentions:The case of Mainland Chinese tourists[J]. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 2021, 19(2):250~273.
doi: 10.1080/14766825.2019.1679160
[89] Yang Y, Liu H B, Li X. The world is flatter? Examining the relationship between cultural distance and international tourist flows[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2019, 58(2):224~240.
doi: 10.1177/0047287517748780
[90] Yang Y, Liu H B, Li X, et al. A shrinking world for tourists? Examining the changing role of distance factors in understanding destination choices[J]. Journal of Business Research, 2018(92):350~359.
[91] Yang Y, Wong K K F. The influence of cultural distance on China inbound tourism flows:A panel data gravity model approach[J]. Asian Geographer, 2012, 29(1):21~37.
doi: 10.1080/10225706.2012.662314
[92] Yu J B, Li H L, Xiao H G. Are authentic tourists happier? Examining structural relationships amongst perceived cultural distance,existential authenticity,and wellbeing[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2020, 22(1):144~154.
doi: 10.1002/jtr.v22.1
[93] Zhang Y S, Li X, Wu T. The impacts of cultural values on bilateral international tourist flows:A panel data gravity model[J]. Current Issues in Tourism, 2019, 22(8):967~981.
doi: 10.1080/13683500.2017.1345870
[94] 蔡妤荻. 汉区高校少数民族大学生主流文化适应现状调查——感知文化距离中介效应分析[J]. 教育学术月刊, 2018(3):82~88.
[94] [ CAI Yudi. Status survey of mainstream cultural adaptation of students from ethnic minority in collegy and university in Han district in China:Analysis on mediating effect of role of perceived culture distance[J]. Education Research Monthly, 2018(3):82~88.]
[95] 胡善贵, 曹瑞斓, 刘芳, 等. 跨文化情境下前摄性人格、感知文化距离对创新能力的影响研究[J]. 安徽工业大学学报(社会科学版), 2017,34(2):24~28.
[95] [ HU Shangui, CAO Ruilan, LIU Fang, et al. Impacts of proactive personality and cultural distance on creativity in cross-cultural settings[J]. Journal of Anhui University of Technology (Social Sciences), 2017,34(2):24~28.]
[96] 怀特海. 过程与实在[M]. 李步楼,译. 北京: 商务印书馆, 2011:9.
[96] [ Whitehead A N. Process and Reality [M]. LI Bulou,trans. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2011:9.]
[97] 吉尔特·霍夫斯泰德, 格特·扬·霍夫斯泰德. 文化与组织:心理软件的力量[M].李原,孙健敏,译. 北京: 中国人民大学出版社, 2010:18~19.
[97] [ Hofstede G, Hofstede G J. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind [M]. LI Yuan,SUN Jianmin,trans. Beijing: China Renmin University Press, 2010:18~19.]
[98] 梁建, 樊景立. 理论构念的测量[M]// 陈晓萍, 沈伟. 组织与管理研究的实证方法. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2018:385~423.
[98] [ LIANG Jian, FAN Jingli. Measurement of theoretical constructs[M]// CHEN Xiaoping, SHEN Wei. Empirical Methods for Organization and Management Research. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2018:385~423.]
[99] 刘祥艳, 杨丽琼, 吕兴洋. 文化距离对我国出境旅游的影响——基于引力模型的动态面板数据分析[J]. 旅游科学, 2018,32(4):60~70.
[99] [ LIU Xiangyan, YANG Liqiong, LYU Xingyang. The impact of cultural distance on China's outbound tourism:A dynamic panel data analysis based on the gravity model[J]. Tourism Science, 2018,32(4):60~70.]
[100] 罗胜强, 姜嬿. 单维构念与多维构念的测量[M]// 陈晓萍, 沈伟. 组织与管理研究的实证方法. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2018:424~463.
[100] [ LUO Shengqiang, JIANG Yan. Measurement of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional constructs[M]// CHEN Xiaoping, SHEN Wei. Empirical Methods of Organization and Management Research. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2018:424~463.]
[101] 钱晓慧. 文化距离感知对旅游者目的地选择的影响研究[D]. 合肥: 安徽大学, 2008.
[101] [ QIAN Xiaohui. The study of the impact on tourist's destination selection of cultural distance perception[D]. Hefei: Anhui University, 2008.]
[102] 覃玉荣, 周敏波. 东盟留学生跨境适应研究——基于文化距离的视角[J]. 复旦教育论坛, 2013,11(4):80~85.
[102] [ QIN Yurong, ZHOU Minbo. Research on ASEAN overseas students' cross-border adaptation:The perspective of cultural distance[J]. Fudan Education Forum, 2013,11(4):80~85.]
[103] 曲颖, 李天元. 国外近十年旅游目的地游客忠诚研究综述[J]. 旅游学刊, 2010,25(1):86~94.
[103] [ QU Ying, LI Tianyuan. A review about the loyalty of tourists in tourism destinations overseas in the past decade[J]. Tourism Tribune, 2010,25(1):86~94.]
[104] 王公为. 多元距离对中国入境旅游的影响——基于扩展的引力模型[J]. 西部经济管理论坛, 2019,30(1):79~86.
[104] [ WANG Gongwei. Effect of multiple distance on China's inbound tourism:Based on extended tourism gravity model[J]. West Forum on Economy and Management, 2019,30(1):79~86.]
[105] 王丽, 王诚庆, 孙梦阳. 文化距离对北京入境游客时空行为的影响研究[J]. 人文地理, 2018,33(4):137~145.
[105] [ WANG Li, WANG Chengqing, SUN Mengyang. The effects of cultural distance on spatio-temporal behavior of Beijing international visitors[J]. Human Geography, 2018,33(4):137~145.]
[106] 王泽宇, 王国锋, 井润田. 基于外派学者的文化智力、文化新颖性与跨文化适应研究[J]. 管理学报, 2013,10(3):384~389.
[106] [ WANG Zeyu, WANG Guofeng, JING Runtian. Cultural intelligence,culture novelty and cross-cultural adjustment:An empirical study on expatriate academics[J]. Chinese Journal of Management, 2013,10(3):384~389.]
[107] 萧文龙. 统计分析入门与应用[M]. 台北: 碁峰资讯股份有限公司, 2018:19.
[107] [ XIAO Wenlong. Introduction to Statistical Analysis [M]. Taibei,China: GF Information Co.,Ltd., 2018:19.]
[108] 晏国祥. 国际营销中文化差异性研究[J]. 北京工业大学学报(社会科学版), 2006,6(1):34~40.
[108] [ YAN Guoxiang. Study on cultural difference in international marketing[J]. Journal of Beijing University of Technology (Social Sciences Edition), 2006,6(1):34~40.]
[109] 杨旸, 刘宏博, 李想. 文化距离对旅游目的地选择的影响——以日本和中国大陆出境游为例[J]. 旅游学刊, 2016,31(10):45~55.
[109] [ YANG Yang, LIU Hongbo, LI Xiang. The influences of national cultural distance on international destination choice of Japanese and Chinese residents[J]. Tourism Tribune, 2016,31(10):45~55.]
[110] 张高军. 中国内文化群体旅游目的地形象认知的比较研究[D]. 西安: 陕西师范大学, 2016.
[110] [ ZHANG Gaojun. A comparative study on the image perception of tourist destinations of cultural groups in China[D]. Xi'an: Shaanxi Normal University, 2016.]
[111] 赵宝春, 田志龙. 中国大陆游客境外目的地发达程度和文化距离偏好研究[J]. 管理学报, 2008,5(6):896~902.
[111] [ ZHAO Baochun, TIAN Zhilong. Mainland of China tourists preference for cultural distance and development level of their travelling oversea destinations[J]. Chinese Journal of Management, 2008,5(6):896~902.]
[112] 周玲强, 毕娟. 文化距离对国际旅游目的地选择行为的影响:以中国入境游市场为例[J]. 浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版), 2017,47(4):130~142.
[112] [ ZHOU Lingqiang, BI Juan. The influence of cultural distance on international tourism destination choices:A case study of Chinese inbound tourism market[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 2017,47(4):130~142.]
[1] 王金伟. 黑色旅游学术研究的理论前沿与本土实践[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 1-5.
[2] 王金伟,王国权,王欣. 黑色旅游的批判性反思与理论建构[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(6): 6-22.
[3] 白凯, 王馨. 中国旅游者行为研究述评(1987—2018)[J]. 旅游导刊, 2018, 2(6): 17-32.
[4] 刘祥艳, 蒋依依, 吕兴洋. 中国出境旅游研究进展与展望[J]. 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(3): 65-79.