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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (4): 58-78    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.156
    
基于外群体同质效应的目的地形象差异研究——以美国纽约州UGC图片为例
李高广,马佳丽,邓宁
北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院 北京 100024
Research on Destination Image Difference Based on the Out-Group Homogeneity Effect: A Case Study of UGC Images of New York State
LI Gaoguang,MA Jiali,DENG Ning
School of Tourism Science, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
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摘要:

游客上传到社交媒体的UGC图片蕴含了关于目的地形象的关键信息,研究本地居民、本国游客和外国游客3个群体的旅游目的地形象,既能丰富和深化旅游目的地形象群体差异的研究,又可以为旅游精准营销提供理论依据。本研究以社交图片网站Flickr中美国纽约州图片元数据集作为研究素材,采用计算机文本分析方法,通过高频词提取、情感极性计算等技术对2004—2014年的73万张图片展开分析,获得基于UGC图片元数据的3类群体的纽约州旅游认知形象和情感形象。研究表明:(1)不同群体对认知形象内容维度的关注度趋同;(2)不同群体认知形象的构建内容存在明显差异,本地居民的认知形象最为丰富;(3)不同群体情感形象整体评价以正面为主,但同时也流露出一定的负面情感倾向。

关键词: UGC图片元数据目的地形象群体差异外群体同质效应    
Abstract:

User-generated content (UGC) uploaded by tourists to social media platforms contains critical information about destination image. Studying the tourism destination images of local residents, domestic tourists, and foreign tourists can enrich and deepen the research on group differences of destination images while also providing a theoretical basis for tourism-related precision marketing. This paper uses a New York image metadata set on Flickr as its research materials. A total of 730,000 pictures from 2004 to 2014 are analyzed using computer text analysis, high-frequency word extraction, emotion polarity calculation, and other technologies to obtain the cognitive and emotional images of three different groups based on UGC image metadata. Research findings show that: (1) different groups have almost the same level of attention to the content of cognitive images; (2) there are discernible differences in the content of cognitive image construction by different groups, and the cognitive images of local residents are the richest; and (3) the overall evaluation of the affective images of different groups is positive, but some negative emotional tendency is also revealed. Finally, some practical suggestions are proposed based on research conclusions.

Key words: UGC    picture metadata    destination image    group differences    out-group homogeneity effect
收稿日期: 2020-04-20 出版日期: 2021-08-27
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 北京第二外国语学院北京旅游发展研究基地科研项目“基于图片机器学习的海外游客视角下中国形象研究”(LYFZ18B001)
作者简介: 李高广(1980— ),男,河南平顶山人,博士,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院讲师,研究方向:市场营销、品牌管理、旅游大数据。|马佳丽(1995— ),女,山西晋中人,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院硕士研究生,研究方向:旅游营销和电子商务。|邓 宁(1983— ),男,湖南湘乡人,博士,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院副院长、副教授,研究方向:旅游信息化、旅游大数据、旅游目的地营销。
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引用本文:

李高广,马佳丽,邓宁. 基于外群体同质效应的目的地形象差异研究——以美国纽约州UGC图片为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(4): 58-78.

LI Gaoguang,MA Jiali,DENG Ning. Research on Destination Image Difference Based on the Out-Group Homogeneity Effect: A Case Study of UGC Images of New York State. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(4): 58-78.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.156        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I4/58

图1  基于UGC图片的目的地形象群体差异研究技术路线
本地居民
Local Residents
本国游客
Domestic Tourists
外国游客
Foreign Tourists
名词
Noun.
词频
Frequency
名词
Noun.
词频
Frequency
名词
Noun.
词频
Frequency
Brooklyn 79 138 Manhattan 22 505 Manhattan 48 031
Manhattan 62 216 Brooklyn 14 799 Brooklyn 22 700
building 27 432 museum 9 668 vacation 17 257
Metropolitan Museum of Art 20 802 Metropolitan Museum of Art 8 786 Metropolitan Museum of Art 17 032
vacation 18 777 vacation 7 954 building 14 232
museum 16 053 nature 5 854 museum 13 402
church 13 746 japanese culture 4 789 street 11 522
downtown 13 355 building 4 659 Central Park 9 660
street 12 491 Queens 4 355 night 8 519
Central Park 11 571 Central Park 3 993 Times Square 8 203
表1  三类群体相关图片元数据信息中的高频名词
序号
Order
维度
Class
本地居民
Local Residents
本国游客
Domestic Tourists
外国游客
Foreign Tourists
词频
Frequency
比重(%)
Proportion
词频
Frequency
比重(%)
Proportion
词频
Frequency
比重(%)
Proportion
1 场所/地域Place/Region 269 013 29.84 65 128 29.37 148 464 26.62
2 建筑Architect/Buildings 195 197 21.65 53 326 24.05 127 858 22.93
3 自然Nature/Landscape 185 459 20.57 43 401 19.57 102 423 18.37
4 活动Activity 121 413 13.47 25 975 11.71 83 469 14.97
5 文化Culture/Art 67 148 7.45 22 372 10.09 52 581 9.43
6 人物People 43 606 4.84 9 912 4.47 29 372 5.27
7 交通/设施Transport
/Infrastructure
19 799 2.20 1 621 0.73 13 488 2.42
表2  根据图片内容进行维度划分所得各维度图片比例
序号
Order
情感特质
Affective qualities
所占比例(%)
Percentage
本地居民
Local Residents
本国游客
Domestic Tourists
外国游客
Foreign Tourists
1 令人振奋的arousing 6.37 9.23 6.98
2 令人兴奋的exciting 44.31 41.93 47.15
3 令人愉快的pleasant 39.27 42.28 35.47
4 令人放松的relaxing 5.67 6.56 7.5
5 使人不愉快的unpleasant 3 0 1.54
6 使人痛苦悲伤的distressing 1.37 0 1.36
表3  Flickr纽约州相关图片元数据中情感形象及比例关系
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