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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (3): 38-63    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.166
研究论文     
中国旅行社业经营效率测度及营商环境的影响研究
张大鹏1(),吴桐1,高志勤2
1.中南财经政法大学工商管理学院 湖北武汉 430073
2.中国国旅(江苏)国际旅行社有限公司 江苏南京 210003
Study on the Efficiency of China's Travel Agency Industry and the Impact of Business Environment
ZHANG Dapeng1(),WU Tong1,GAO Zhiqin2
1. School of Business Administration, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073, China
2. China International Travel Service Co., Ltd, Nanjing 210003, China
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摘要:

科学测度旅行社业经营效率和量化分析其营商环境因素的影响效应,对科学指导旅行社业优质高效发展具有重要的理论价值和现实意义。本文利用随机前沿分析法测度2001—2015年我国省际层面旅行社业经营效率,并实证检验了旅游化、国际化、法治化和市场化等重要营商环境因素的影响效应。研究结果表明,观察期内我国旅行社业经营效率总体水平偏低,大致呈现“间歇波动、缓慢攀升”的演变特征,三大区域经营效率变化基本同频,无明显差异;旅游化对旅行社业经营效率具有倒U形的非线性影响作用;国际化为旅行社业提供了更加开放的营商环境,有利于提高经营效率;法治化环境是旅行社业可持续发展的重要保障,旅游法的实施抑制了旅行社业的非合规经营收入;市场化改革优化了旅行社业资源配置,提升了经营效率;市场化与法治化协同推进了旅行社业经营效率的提升。

关键词: 旅行社业经营效率营商环境随机前沿分析    
Abstract:

Examining external factors affecting the travel agency industry's efficiency is a crucial means of advancing travel agencies' performance and improving the industry's sustainability. We employed stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and used provincial data covering the period of 2001-2015 in China. The results reveal that the average efficiency of China's travel agency industry showed the character of low levels, slow growth, and regional differences during the observation period. This study also identifies that a non-linear relationship exists between touristization and travel agencies' industry efficiency in China. The international environment, measured by means of trade openness, has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of the travel agency industry. The legal environment has improved concerning China's tourism law, which has substantially deterred unfair competition, improved the quality of travel services, and paved the way for the industry's future development. The process of marketization has a significant positive impact on the efficiency of the travel agency industry. Moreover, legal environment and marketization exert a synergistic effect on the efficiency of the travel agency industry. Based on the above conclusions, several policy recommendations are proposed to promote the high-quality and efficient development of China's travel agency industry.

Key words: travel agency industry    operational efficiency    business environment    stochastic frontier analysis
收稿日期: 2020-08-02 出版日期: 2021-07-14
基金资助: 本研究受国家社科基金一般项目“包容性视角下乡村旅游产业对农民收入影响研究”(20BJY207)
通讯作者: 张大鹏     E-mail: zdp0406@zuel.edu.cn
作者简介: 吴 桐(1998— ),女,河南驻马店人,中南财经政法大学工商管理学院旅游管理系硕士研究生,研究方向:旅游经济与旅游业效率。|高志勤(1983— ),男,安徽庐江人,硕士,中国国旅(江苏)国际旅行社有限公司总经理助理兼目的地事业部总经理。
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引用本文:

张大鹏,吴桐,高志勤. 中国旅行社业经营效率测度及营商环境的影响研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(3): 38-63.

ZHANG Dapeng,WU Tong,GAO Zhiqin. Study on the Efficiency of China's Travel Agency Industry and the Impact of Business Environment. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(3): 38-63.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.166        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I3/38

图1  理论分析框架
检验步骤
Testing Step
检验目的
Testing Aim
假设
Hypothesis
对数
似然
函数值
LLF
似然比检验统计量LR 自由度
Degree of Freedom
(k)
χ20.99
(k)
检验结果
Testing Result
1 模型
适用性
H0γ=0 -213.53 458.00 3 10.501 拒绝
原假设
H1γ≠0 15.61
2 生产函数
形式
H0
βKK=βLL=βTT=βKL=βTK=βTL=0
11.66 7.90 3 10.501 不能拒绝
原假设
H1βKK=βLL=βTT=βKL=βTK=βTL≠0 15.61
3 是否存在
技术变化
H0βT=0 -33.35 90.02 3 10.501 拒绝
原假设
H1βT≠0 11.66
4 效率是否
存在时变
H0η=0 7.32 8.68 2 8.273 拒绝
原假设
H1η≠0 11.66
表1  假设检验结果汇总
序号
Order
变量名称
Variable
简写
Symbol
变量测量方法
Definition
平均值
Mean
标准差
Std.Dev.
最大值
Max.
最小值
Min.
1 经营产出 Y 旅行社营业收入,并以2001年为基期进行平减(万元) 471 406 719 508 4 200 392 7 318
2 资本要素 K 旅行社固定资产总额,以2001年为基期平减(万元) 166 139 238 533 1 201 365 3 143
3 劳动要素 L 旅行社从业人员数量(人) 9 531 7 464 43 077 577
4 旅游化环境 TS 旅游总收入/地区生产总值 0.104 4 0.051 6 0.333 3 0.016 9
5 国际化环境 FTDD 贸易总额/地区生产总值 0.316 5 0.365 6 1.711 4 0.015 2
6 法治化环境 TL 虚拟变量,2014、2015年取值为1,其他年份为0 0.133 3 0.340 3 1 0
7 市场化环境 MI 利用王小鲁等(2017)的市场化指数衡量并取对数 1.932 5 0.349 8 2.707 4 0.862 9
8 经济发展
环境
PGDP 人均生产总值,按2001年不变价进行平减(元),并对数化处理 9.695 5 0.639 5 11.064 2 8.006 4
9 交通区位
环境
TRA TRA =(铁路营业里程×5 +等级公路里程×3 +内河航道通航里程×1)/(9×省际行政区划面积) 0.216 1 0.158 5 0.777 5 0.008 9
表2  变量说明、测量方法与描述性统计结果
变量
Variable
待估参数
Parameter
模型1
Model 1
模型2
Model 2
模型3
Model 3
模型4
Model 4
常数项 β0 3.968 7*** 3.715 3*** 2.880 6*** 3.743 0***
lnK β1 0.212 2*** 0.212 3*** 0.236 5*** 0.214 7***
lnL β2 0.796 4*** 0.815 4*** 0.876 0*** 0.810 3***
T β3 0.031 4*** 0.035 4*** 0.029 4*** 0.034 9***
技术无效率函数
常数项 δ0 3.366 4*** 3.091 2*** 3.217 8*** 3.038 1***
TS δ1 -4.920 9*** -3.196 7*** -3.190 5*** -3.088 4***
TS2 δ2 5.843 0** 2.288 7***
FTDD δ3 -0.305 1*** -0.328 1*** -0.207 5*** -0.314 4***
TL δ4 1.205 3*** 1.151 2*** 0.075 1*** 0.104 5***
MI δ5 -0.432 3*** -0.434 0*** -0.230 9*** -0.472 7***
MI×TL δ6 -0.504 4** -0.475 3***
PGDP δ7 -0.059 0 -0.045 3 -0.105 1 -0.031 2
TRA δ8 -0.136 6 -0.149 6 -0.420 7 -0.225 5
方差参数
σ2 0.114 2*** 0.117 3*** 0.139 5*** 0.117 2***
γ 0.999 9*** 0.999 9*** 0.999 9*** 0.999 9***
诊断信息
Log函数值 -144.78*** -146.40*** -158.62*** -150.04***
LR检验 196.85 193.62 169.17 186.33
样本数 450 450 450 450
年数 15 15 15 15
截面数 30 30 30 30
表3  随机前沿模型估计结果
图2  我国旅行社业平均经营效率水平状况分布雷达图
图3  我国旅行社业平均经营效率增速状况雷达图
图4  2001—2015年全国及各区域旅行社业平均效率发展趋势
图5  2002—2015年全国及各区域旅行社业平均效率增长趋势
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