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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 76-102    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.164
综述论文     
所见即所得:旅游眼动研究述评与展望
刘必强1,黎耀奇2()
1.格里菲斯大学旅游、体育和酒店管理系 澳大利亚布里斯班 4111
2.中山大学旅游学院 广东广州 510275
What You See Is What You Get: A Research Review and Prospects of Tourism Eye-Tracking Studies
LIU Biqiang1,LI Yaoqi2()
1. Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith University, QLD, Brisbane 4111, Australia
2. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
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摘要:

旅游作为一种视觉体验活动,探究旅游者的注视兴趣、视觉轨迹及其影响对发现旅游者视线特点、改进视觉对象的呈现方式具有重要意义。受限于传统自我报告研究方法所存在的主观偏差,如何更加客观科学地揭示旅游者视觉规律成为旅游学界亟待解决的研究课题。近年来,眼动追踪技术不断成熟,使得通过眼动探究内心成为可能,并逐渐引起旅游学者的重视。基于此,本文首先介绍了眼动原理和眼动追踪技术的发展脉络,然后总结和分析了心理学与管理学等领域的眼动研究进展,并对旅游领域的眼动研究现状进行了系统的文献述评,最后探讨了未来的研究展望。研究发现,近年来国内外旅游学界对眼动研究的关注开始升温,成果数量呈现上升趋势。目前该领域的研究热点主要集中在旅游营销、旅游地图与旅游地空间感知以及旅游资源评价等方面。本文基于对旅游眼动研究框架的梳理,建议未来可以从挖掘眼动心理机制、关注视觉材料加工模式 、探索眼动指标、提升眼动研究外部效度以及规范眼动研究流程等方面作进一步探索。

关键词: 眼动追踪技术注意力视觉研究综述实验范式    
Abstract:

Tourism has long been characterized by visual experience activities. It is, therefore, important for tourism scholars to explore tourists’ visual interests and paths, as well as their subsequent influences, to improve the display of visual stimuli and identify tourists’ visual patterns. Restricted by the subjective bias in the self-report method, the question of how to shed light on tourists’ visual patterns objectively has become an important research topic to be solved urgently. The recent rapid development of eye-tracking techniques is paving the way for exploring people's internal minds and has attracted a great deal of attention from tourism scholars. In this context, this paper first introduces the physiological bases of eye-tracking and the development of eye-tracking techniques. It then reviews the development of eye-tracking studies in the fields of psychology and management. The paper further focuses on the progress and prospects of eye-tracking in the tourism field, finding that eye-tracking research has gained increasing interest. At present, eye-tracking research has mainly explored tourism marketing, tourism map design, tourists' spatial perception, and tourism resources evaluation. Finally, the paper discusses the proposed research framework and provides insightful suggestions for future tourism eye-tracking studies.

Key words: eye-tracking techniques    attention    visual sense    research review    experimental paradigm
收稿日期: 2020-08-29 出版日期: 2021-03-24
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“服务接触中外貌刻板印象对消费者响应的影响机制研究:基于社会距离的中介”(71602073);广东省自然科学基金项目“基于消费者视角的外貌刻板机理研究:外貌吸引力、服务能力联想与消费者社会距离感知”(2017A030313407);国家留学基金(202006380090)
通讯作者: 黎耀奇     E-mail: liyaoqi3@mail.sysu.edu.cn
作者简介: 刘必强(1994—),男,重庆人,澳大利亚格里菲斯大学旅游、体育和酒店管理系博士研究生,研究方向:旅游者行为、服务营销。
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引用本文:

刘必强,黎耀奇. 所见即所得:旅游眼动研究述评与展望[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(1): 76-102.

LIU Biqiang,LI Yaoqi. What You See Is What You Get: A Research Review and Prospects of Tourism Eye-Tracking Studies. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(1): 76-102.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.164        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I1/76

图1  近年来国内外旅游眼动期刊论文发表数量趋势 注:为方便研究,笔者将检索到的3篇发表年份为2020年的外文文献并入2019年
期刊等级
Journal Grade
期刊名称/刊载篇数
Journal Name/N
作者(年份)
Author(s)(Year)
CSSCI 《资源科学》/1 郭素玲、赵宁曦和张建新等(2017)
《旅游学刊》/3 黄潇婷、李玟璇和闫申(2018)
王敏、江冰婷和朱竑(2017)
王君怡、林岚和高华等(2016)
SSCI Q1 International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology/1 Vater、Williams和Hossner(2020)
Tourism Management/1 Li、Huang和Christianson(2016)
Annals of Tourism Research/1 Li、Chen和Wang等(2020)
Journal of Travel Research/1 Wang和Sparks(2016)
International Journal of Hospitality Management/2 Kim、Tang和Meusel等(2018)
Yang(2012)
Journal of Destination Marketing & Management/1 Lever、Shen和Joppe(2019)
Journal of Sport and Health Science/1 Vera、Jiménez和Cárdenas等(2017)
Journal of Sustainable Tourism/3 Babakhani、Lee和Dolnicar(2020)
Le、Scott和Becken等(2019)
Babakhani、Ritchie和Dolnicar(2017)
Current Issues in Tourism/7 Babakhani、Randle和Dolnicar(2020)
Ngan和Yu(2019)
Scott、Le和Becken等(2020)
Scott、Zhang和Le等(2019)
Wang、Tsai和Tang(2019)
Scott、Green和Fairley(2016)
Li、Scott和Walters(2015)
SSCI Q2 Psychology of Sport & Exercise/3 Del Campo、Fari?as和Márquez等(2018)
Walters-Symons、Wilson和Vine(2017)
Hancock和Ste-Marie(2013)
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly/1 Pan、Zhang和Law(2013)
Tourism Management Perspectives/1 Boz、Arslan和Koc(2017)
European Sport Management Quarterly/1 Ellert、Schafmeister和Mueller等(2014)
Journal of Applied Sport Psychology/3 Hüttermann、Memmert和Liesner(2014)
Vine和Wilson(2010)
Singer、Cauraugh和Chen等(1996)
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport/15 Hüttermann和Memmert(2017)
Franks和Lajoie(1998)
Locke和Jensen(1974)
……
SSCI Q3 Journal of Vacation Marketing/1 Kong、Huang和Scott等(2019)
SSCI Q4 International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching/4 Robertson、Callan和Nevison等(2018)
Piras、Lanzoni和Raffi等(2016)
Lorains、Panchuk和Ball等(2014)
Strachan和Weir(2006)
Journal of Leisure Research/1 Liu和Upchurch(2020)
表1  旅游眼动研究在国内外高质量学术期刊的发表数量
主要眼动指标
Metrics
基本含义
Basic Meanings
首次注视时间
Time-to-first Fixation
当刺激初次呈现给被试时,被试首次注视到AOI的时间/时长,主要用来衡量刺激信息的重要程度
首次注视时长
First Fixation Duration
注视次数
Fixation Count
被试对刺激的注视次数/注视时长,主要用来衡量被试对刺激的加工深度和认知努力程度。也有学者认为注视次数越多,表明AOI的布局越不合理;注视时长越长,表明被试从AOI获取信息越困难
注视时长
Fixation Duration
访问次数
Visit Count
对刺激的访问次数/访问总时长,主要用来衡量被试对刺激的兴趣程度
访问时长
Visit Duration
回视次数
Revisit Count
首次访问AOI后,对AOI再次访问的次数,表明对AOI的重视程度和再加工过程
注视频率(次/s)
Fixation Frequency
注视次数与注视时间之比,反映AOI受重视程度的指标。注视频率高则表示被试对图片感觉重要或较为感兴趣
注视时间比重
Percentage of Fixation Duration
注视时长与观察总时间的比值。注视时间比重越大,说明被试对AOI的观察时间相对其他AOI较长
眼跳频率(次/s)
Saccade Frequency
单位时间内的眼跳次数,能够反映被试的搜索行为。在信息搜索过程中,眼动频率越高表明被试的搜索量越大,抑或表明刺激信息的特征不鲜明
眼跳时间比重
Percentage of Saccade Duration
眼跳总时间与观察总时间的比值,主要反映被试在选取注视点上所用的时间
平均眼跳幅度/度
Average Saccade Amplitude
反映获取信息的范围。平均眼跳幅度越大表示刺激特征越鲜明,被试能够直接到达AOI
平均眼跳速度(度/s)
Average Saccade Velocity
评价被试获取信息范围大小的指标,反映图片信息的鲜明特征
瞳孔直径
Pupil Diameter
反映被试对刺激的兴趣程度和认知负荷
表2  主要眼动指标及其基本含义
发表时间/作者
Year / Author(s)
刺激材料
Stimulus
被试/数量
Sample/N
仪器
Apparatus
眼动指标
Metrics
2020/Babakhani等 菜单 大学生/54 Tobii TX300 注视时长、停留时长、首次注视时间
2020/Babakhani等 网页 大学生/31 Tobii TX300 注视时长、轨迹图
2020/Li等 旅游图片 10~13岁儿童/45 SMI REDn Scientific 注视时长、次数、停留时长,热图
2019/Kong 网页 大学生/30 EyeLink 1000 注视次数、停留时长,热图
2019/Liu和Upchurch 旅游图片 大学生/55 Tobii Pro X3-120 注视时长、次数,热图
2019/Ngan和Yu 服务人员照片 大学生/112 Gazepoint GP3 注视时长,热图
2019/Scott等 旅游图片 大学生/66 Tobii T60 注视时长、次数,热图
2019/Wang等 酒店图片 真实顾客/80 / 注视时长、次数
2018/黄潇婷等 旅游地图 大学生/42 EyeSo Ec60 注视点坐标
2018/Kim等 菜单 大学生/95 Eyetech VT2 注视时长、次数
2017/Babakhani等 旅游图片 大学生/20 Tobii TX300 注视时长,访问时长
2017/王敏等 旅游图片 大学生/35 Tobii x3-120 注视频率、时间、时间比,注视空间分布
2016/Li等 旅游图片 大学生/37 EyeLink 1000 注视时长、次数,热图
2016/Scott等 旅游广告 大学生/25 Tobii T60 注视时长、次数、轨迹图,热图
2016/Wang和Sparks 旅游图片 中国和澳大利亚大学生/30 Tobii T120 注视时长、次数、轨迹图,扫视
2016/王君怡等 旅游地图 大学生/69 EyeLink 2000 首次进入时间,首次进入前的注视点数
2013/Pan等 网页 大学教职工/16 GazeTracker 注视次数
2012/Yang等 菜单 大学生/25 iScan EC501 注视时长、频率、轨迹
表3  旅游眼动研究内容概况
图2  旅游眼动研究框架
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