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旅游导刊  2018 , 2 (4): 15-16 https://doi.org/10.12054/lydk.bisu.74

专题论文:旅游研究探索与展望

饮食文化生产中的原真性、食品安全与食品健康

曾国军, 王龙杰

中山大学旅游学院 广东广州 510275

Production of Food Culture: Authenticity, Food Safety and Food Health

ZENG Guojun, WANG Longjie

School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou 510275, China

中图分类号:  F59

文献标识码:  A

文章编号:  2096-3238(2018)04-0015-16

收稿日期: 2017-12-12

修回日期:  2018-06-20

网络出版日期:  2018-07-30

版权声明:  2018 《旅游导刊》编辑部 《旅游导刊》编辑部 所有

基金资助:  本文受国家自然科学基金(项目编号:41571129)、ESRC(Economic and Social Research Council)国际合作项目“可持续消费、中产阶级与食品消费伦理”(项目编号:BH170896)资助

作者简介:

作者简介: 曾国军(1977— ),男,湖南华容人,博士,中山大学旅游学院教授、博士生导师,研究方向:酒店管理和饮食地理。E-mail:zenggj@mail.sysu.edu.cn .王龙杰(1992— ),男,江苏盐城人,中山大学旅游学院博士研究生,研究方向:饮食地理和旅游信息化。

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摘要

饮食文化的跨地方再生产是饮食地理领域的重要议题。尽管已有研究从食品生产与消费二维情境的响应和匹配视角分析了饮食文化的异地生产,但这些研究仍是基于生产者视角的解读,忽视了食品本原价值,亦即食品的原真性和食品的安全与健康价值。本文基于饮食文化生产中的原真性、食品的安全与食品的健康等维度,构建了饮食文化再生产的三维分析框架,通过案例比较和文献分析,对流动性视角下的食品原真性与食品安全、地方性视角下的食品原真性与食品健康、现代性视角下的食品安全与食品健康之间的矛盾和冲突展开深入讨论。在此基础上,本文提出了未来的饮食文化生产研究方向,特别是食品生产与消费的统合、自然科学与社会科学对饮食文化生产研究的整合等,也为饮食文化的当代生产提供体系化的分析思路。

关键词: 饮食文化生产 ; 原真性 ; 食品安全 ; 食品健康

Abstract

The trans-local cultural production of food is one of the most hotly debated research agendas and becomes emergingly significant in the area of food geography. Despite the long-term discussion on the paradox of authenticity versus standardization of food and the theoretical exploration on the food consumption context versus producers’ strategy, there is still a lack of interpretation from the views of food consumers, especially the fundamental value of food, namely food authenticity, food safety and food health. Given these shortcomings, this study proposed a three-dimensional framework including food authenticity, food safety and food health and based on this theoretical framework, this paper discussed different perceptions of the three elements from both food producers and consumers. This paper mainly discussed the negotiation process of food authenticity and food safety in the context of mobility and especially the tourism mobility; the second topic is the co-production of food authenticity and food health in the context of (re-)localization and particularly the destruction of global food network on local lifestyle and food perception; the third research agenda is the dis-continuum of food safety and food health in the process of modernization and the uniqueness of food value among different consumers. Furthermore, this research envisions the new directions on food research through both the view of food production and consumption and the integration of natural science and social science, which will promote the sustainable food culture production system in the near future.

Keywords: the production of food culture ; authenticity ; food safety ; food health

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本文引用格式 导出 EndNote Ris Bibtex

曾国军, 王龙杰. 饮食文化生产中的原真性、食品安全与食品健康[J]. 旅游导刊, 2018, 2(4): 15-16 https://doi.org/10.12054/lydk.bisu.74

ZENG Guojun, WANG Longjie. Production of Food Culture: Authenticity, Food Safety and Food Health[J]. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2018, 2(4): 15-16 https://doi.org/10.12054/lydk.bisu.74

引言

伴随经济发展水平的提高,消费者对食品的原真性、食品安全和食品健康等问题越来越重视。这也引发全球范围内大量研究者关注该领域。同时,食品不安全事件频发、消费者对工业化食品缺乏信任,也促使食品安全建设日益成为政府工作的重点内容之一。2017年10月18日,习近平总书记在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上提出:“实施食品安全战略,让人民吃得放心”。李克强总理也指出,食品安全是全面建成小康社会的重要标志。与此同时,学界也从多方面探讨食品安全问题,具体视角有“嵌入型”(Baritaux,Houdart & Boutonnet,et al.,2016)、“农消对接”(Van der Ploeg,Ye & Schneider,2012)、“短供应链”(D’Amico,Di & Chinnici,et al.,2014)等,为解决从田野到餐桌的食品安全问题提供了理论支撑。

现有研究较多关注饮食生产的组织模式和如何重构消费者的信任问题(Farsund,Daugbjerg & Langhelle,2015),很少关注流动性背景下日益频繁的跨地方饮食文化再生产过程,对其背后的饮食原真性、食品健康与食品安全问题关注不足。实际上,传统的地方性饮食在跨地方扩张过程中,不可避免地面临着原真性与食品安全性两难、原真性与食品健康性协调以及食品安全性与食品健康性再协调等问题。可以认为,基于“全球化”与“地方性”冲突的背景,考虑生产者与消费者的交互视角,探讨饮食原真性、食品健康与食品安全之间的相互关系,成为饮食文化生产领域的研究重点(曾国军、孙树芝、朱竑等,2013)。深入探讨这些话题,可以指引当代的饮食文化生产研究体系的形成(Eakin,Connors & Wharton,et al.,2017)。

在全球化背景下,饮食文化生产企业面临着一系列战略决策:当地经营还是跨地方经营,单体经营还是集团化经营,面向熟知文化客体的消费者还是完全面向外来文化的消费者等(曾国军、陆汝瑞,2017)。基于不同的战略要素组合,饮食企业的文化再生产需要依据不同的生产与消费情境因地制宜地确定战略决策。尤其是,饮食的跨地方生产与旅游活动的异地性本质不谋而合,因而消费者的旅游饮食消费会因跨地方饮食生产而变得更为复杂(MacLaurin,2001)。为响应顾客对速度与质量、标准化与原真性、安全健康与地道传统等的“二元”需求,饮食生产者与顾客需要就食品的原真性、安全与健康需求达成共识Tikkanen,2009)。因此,本文提出如下研究问题:跨地方的饮食生产如何满足消费者对原真性的渴求?原真性与食品安全和食品健康的关系是什么?本文尝试从原真性、食品安全与食品健康3个维度构建当代饮食文化生产分析框架,在流动性与跨地方视角下,借助文献述评与多案例比较分析,枚举目前饮食企业在文化再生产过程中存在的问题,并据此提炼未来的饮食文化研究方向。

一、文献研究

1. 跨地方与饮食文化生产

20世纪60年代以来,世界范围内的饮食生产实践出现了日益频繁的跨地方流动与多源地文化的交融,跨地方性也成为衡量饮食文化地方性的新维度(Cook & Crang,1996)。然而,饮食文化的跨地方生产必然涉及原有的地方性文化簇与异地文化情境的交织与融合(曾国军、刘梅,2013),其间的饮食原真性、食品安全与食品健康价值等问题也未有定论。饮食文化的原真性、食品安全与食品健康价值,向来是饮食文化生产的核心维度:原真性是食品的地方性之源,是区域饮食文化的集中显示,具有客观主义、建构主义、存在主义等多种内涵(曾国军、刘梅、刘博等,2013);食品安全是饮食文化生产的基本要求;食品健康价值更是饮食文化再生产的福利(welfare)(Winter,2003a)。地方性情境下,由来已久的饮食文化实践达成了原真性、食品安全与食品健康的协调,并通过饮食传统(convention)或地域性(terroir)等质量标准认证方式为其提供合法性背书(Ponte,2009),饮食文化生产与所在地消费情境相适应。但在跨地方生产情境下,饮食文化生产不仅面临着客观原真性的再调适,而且其客体原真性、食品安全与健康的受众对象等也发生了联合变迁,对当代饮食文化再生产的内涵需要重新界定。因此,如何推动跨地方生产情境下饮食原真性、安全与健康等因素的多维归一(Goodman,2001),也成为当前饮食文化研究亟待回应的问题。

跨地方的饮食文化生产,需要对食品的原真性进行解构和再造。现有研究较多关注原真性与标准化间的二元悖论(曾国军、刘梅,2013),并依据不同层级演绎出原真标准化、原真性联盟、异质化扩展和标准化连锁等扩张战略(曾国军、陆汝瑞,2017),弥补了以往有关饮食地方性与异地扩张理论研究的不足。然而,这些研究本质上是对饮食企业战略管理层面的决策分析,强调的是饮食生产企业的组织模式,旨在迎合消费者对异地饮食的原真性想象,一定程度上忽略了饮食原真性这一概念意随境转的现象。而且,在主流的“原真性—标准化”分析框架中,原真性被约等于标准化的反面,即强调异质化和差异性,认为原真性饮食具备标准化饮食所不具有的一切优势(Winter,2003b),将原真性视为静态的、一成不变的属性,忽视了原真性的建构性和关系性本质。

与此同时,饮食文化的跨地方生产需要兼顾食品安全与食品健康。跨地方情境暗含对原产地文化的再解释(曾国军、刘梅、刘博等,2013;曾国军、孙树芝,2016),但异地扩张必然涉及饮食的标准化生产与在地情境下的协调,食品的安全与健康等属性也随之被二次定义。为便于流通和统一管理,食品的安全与健康价值往往被表达为各项化学指标的参考范围。因此,在当前跨地方饮食文化再生产过程中,食品的安全标准或被简化为最低程度的生理风险,或被解读为不含毒性物质、在食品保质期内等显性层面标准,隐含其中的是食品安全标准的制定权与话语权的缺失(Hayes-Conroy & Hayes-Conroy,2013)。然而,统一的管理体系并没有遏止食品安全事件的发生,在跨地方的食品流通与生产过程中,食品的安全问题仍然层出不穷,甚至90%的食品安全问题出自于跨地方的流通过程(许惠娇、贺聪志、叶敬忠,2017)。至于食品健康层面,跨地方的饮食文化生产或宣扬普适性的营养参考标准,或刻意回避食品的健康价值,致使食品的健康价值被边缘化为营养元素的搭配,并沦为饮食企业的营销工具。

在跨地方情境下,当前的饮食企业文化再生产尚未实现原真性与食品安全和食品健康的融合,而单纯的生产层面的分析难以完全匹配饮食消费者的需求差异。消费者对跨地方饮食的原真性、食品安全和食品健康价值的认知,更决定了饮食文化能否永续生产。因此,有必要从消费者的偏好视角剖析饮食文化的跨地方性。

2. 流动性与饮食文化消费

20世纪80年代后期,长期的跨地方饮食生产导致了食品的生产过剩,饮食文化的再生产也逐渐从物质性富余过渡到文化层面的需求(Cox,2012)。那时的饮食文化生产,更加强调食品消费的情境性,情境特征成为解释和管理饮食文化生产的核心要素。而伴随时代发展和全球化食物网络的到来(许惠娇、贺聪志、叶敬忠,2017),流动性成为食品消费最重要的情境特征。

早期有关食品消费情境的研究,集中关注于物质性环境、社会文化环境、时空环境、消费动机和消费者缄默知识等(曾国军、陆汝瑞,2017),并且普遍认为食品本身及其所呈现的终端状态影响着人们的消费偏好和就餐选择。随着研究的深入,后续研究者逐渐超越对食品本身的关注,大量研究也发现食品之外的就餐环境、食品体验(food experience)及其背后的故事等都会影响饮食体系的结构(Delind,2006;林俊帆、林耿,2014)。因此,对饮食文化的研究不应只关注生产一端,食品的消费情境也是饮食文化再生产和管理的关键。也就是说,饮食文化的构建是生产端与消费端的价值共创过程(曾国军、张清宇、周世平,2018),消费者不是被动地接受生产端的改造,而是通过信息搜寻、品牌认同、提高卷入度等方式有机地融入饮食文化的生产中(曾国军、陆汝瑞,2017)。实质上,研究焦点的转变也对应着食品研究范式的变化:以往的研究将食品消费情境视为静止的、固定的属性,偏向于大尺度宏观层面的量化解释;近年的研究则强调饮食消费情境的流动性,即不存在永恒不变或标准化的消费情境,个体对于食品属性的认知存在于动态建构的过程中(Goodman & Watts,1998)。因此,对于食品消费情境的理解,特别是对饮食原真性、食品安全和食品健康等特质的解读,需要引入流动性视角。

流动的消费情境中,食品原真性牵涉客观主义、符号化过程等,需要将其置于跨文化消费情境、母体文化对异地文化的再解释中加以理解。既往研究已经从生产者对消费情境的响应视角,分析了标准化的原真性(曾国军、刘梅,2013)、饮食的符号化原真性(曾国军、刘梅、刘博等,2013)、再造的原真性与原真性重塑等过程(曾国军、孙树芝、朱竑等,2013;曾国军、李凌、刘博等,2015;Eakin,Connors & Wharton,et al.,2017),较好地解释了消费情境特征对饮食原真性的影响。这些研究的基本假设前提是,消费者感知到的原真性是决定食品企业经营成功与否的关键,并且原真性的生产主要由饮食企业来完成,消费者只有被动地接受原真性的“喂养”。不同于此,流动性视角下的饮食原真性更强调食品消费的个体差异性及其在“食物”这一整体过程中所发挥的作用,因此原真性存在于流动的食品消费过程中。简言之,流动的食品消费情境凸显了关系性原真(Ye,Xiao & Zhou,2018),这也成为当代饮食文化生产的核心要素之一。与之相关,食品流动的消费情境凸显了食品的安全和健康隐患(MacLaurin,2001)。流动的消费情境暗含着消费者对食品源地、食品产销全过程的疏离,食品的安全健康性依赖于消费者与食品的短时接触(Winter,2003a/b;Watts,Ilbery & Maye,2005)。进一步地,流动的消费情境加深了消费者与食品的时空疏离感,食品安全与食品健康价值也渐趋不确定。现有研究普遍将食品的安全与健康置于生产端检视,强调生产源头的安全健康,并主张建立可追溯的食品供应链条和归责制度(Chiffoleau,2009),但却对消费端的食品安全知识、健康理念和传统、千差万别的安全健康需求等缺乏关注。简言之,以往的食品安全与健康标准是基于某一特定人群或者所谓的健康饮食习惯来制定的,实质上是采用普适性、无差异的食品安全健康标准来方便管理和检测,更深层次上是对食品流动性消费情境的简化和刻意回避。因此,对流动的饮食消费情境的关注,需要回归至消费者感知到的个体差异性和差别化的健康安全,这将进一步推动饮食生产消费的耦合协调和互促发展。

因此,流动性与跨地方背景下的饮食文化生产,需要超越静态、固化的客观主义或物质主义原真性和安全健康标准,对当代的饮食文化生产的理解需要引入动态的、关系化的过程思维来解读原真性、饮食安全与饮食健康(见图1)。特别地,流动性与跨地方视角下的饮食文化不应分割统一的饮食实践,相反,它更应凸显生产与消费的相互联结性。而且,食物的原真性、食品安全与食品健康是相互嵌套并具有内在耦合性的,针对这3个维度的比较分析可提炼和总结未来饮食文化再生产的研究思路。

图 1   饮食文化生产分析框架

Fig.1   The framework of production of food culture

二、流动性视角下的原真性与食品安全

流动性背景下,跨地方餐厅扩张现象大量存在,但跨地方餐厅因为食品源地食材的运输及加工过程更长等问题使得保证食品安全更为困难。跨地方的餐厅在异地扩张过程中应如何协调原真性与食品安全的关系?对于这一问题,学界认为应当从采购环节出发,建立可追溯的供应链,推行食品的安全认证体系,从食材生产的源头保障食品的原真性和安全(Opara,2003;Van Rijswijk & Frewer,2008)。这些研究多从生产者视角分析如何协调食品的原真性与食品的安全,也有少量探讨了消费者对安全食品的消费偏好(Onozaka,Nurse & McFadden,2010;尹世久、徐迎军、徐玲玲等,2015),但基本上都割裂了生产与消费的关联,较少关注跨地方饮食文化生产过程中的生产者和消费者的协商过程。实际上,饮食文化的再生产关乎生产与消费的两端,正是消费者对异地饮食的原真性诉求和在地消费特性不断推动着饮食企业的跨地方扩张。而为了满足消费者对食品原真性的诉求(Feagan,2007;Sims,2009),多数跨地方餐饮企业采取延长食材供应链的策略来保障对食品源地食材的使用,一定程度上牺牲了食品的安全(Telligma,Worosz & Bratcher,2017)。对此,有必要就跨地方餐厅在异地扩张过程中所秉持的食品安全和食品原真性策略,融入消费者对原真性与食品安全的认知,从食品配送、食品加工与食品服务的整个过程探讨饮食文化的再地化(re-localize)生产过程(Ricketts,Ilbery & Kneafsey,2006;Schupp,2017),以弥补对跨地方饮食生产企业食品安全问题研究的不足。

旅游活动是典型的流动性消费情境,旅游者在流动的食品情境中经历原真性与食品安全的再协调。既往研究充分肯定了旅游活动的异地性和非惯常环境下的消费体验(张凌云,2008/2009),但非惯常环境并不完全等同于流动性。非惯常环境推崇的是与原有生活环境的差别,反映了旅行中的生活(Germann,2007;Gibson,2007;Beer,2008)与原真生活情境的差异或者对其的追寻;相比之下,流动性更强调关系的不确定性和动态变化性,特别是旅游者与异地原真性食物的瞬时接触所引致的不稳定性。食品的安全问题是这一不稳定性的最主要议题。早在2000年第一届“旅游和旅行中的食品安全”(MacLaurin,2001)国际会议上,研究者就指出食品的安全是长途、异地旅游流动过程中最大的安全威胁。世界旅游组织(World Tourism Organization)也指出旅游者的腹泻是旅游流动过程中最常见的食源性安全问题,异地、原真的饮食服务是影响游客安全的潜在因素(Wilks & Oldenburg,1995)。这意味着,当原真的异地饮食遭遇流动的消费情境,其食品的安全结果是不可期的,适用于“我者”的原真食品不一定适合外来游客的安全需要,食品原真也可能成为旅游活动的障碍性因素(Cohen & Avieli,2004)。旅游活动的流动性本质与饮食文化生产的跨地方性,使得旅游活动为了寻求原真性(Wang,1999)需要在食品安全层面作协调,在涉及类似食品“本能”(Hayes-Conroy,2010)性等旅游体验时,人们追求的是符合自身安全、在某种可接受程度上的本真。

综上,无论是饮食的跨地方生产,抑或旅游活动的流动性消费,都凸显出饮食原真性与食品安全之间的冲突。这也为未来的食品旅游路线、美食体验产品的设计以及食品原真性与安全性的协调指明了方向。此外,食品的原真性不仅会影响食品安全感知,更会影响到人们对食品健康和营养价值的判断。

三、地方性视角下的原真性与食品健康

全球化在一定程度上会抹杀地方性,但又会创造新的地方性。全球化背景下,跨地方饮食需要面向当地顾客、饮食文化源地顾客等多种消费者群体(Mak,Lumbers & Eves,2012),不同消费者群体对食品的原真性、食品健康等的诉求并不一致(Ong,Frewe & Chan,2017)。已有研究表明,饮食文化的原真性是影响跨地方饮食企业经营成功的关键,但这并不意味着饮食文化在跨地方扩张过程中是一成不变的(曾国军、刘梅,2013),在地的知识和地方文化不断修改着原有文化簇,促使其在保留原真性内核的同时实现了文化汇融和创新(曾国军、刘梅,2013;曾国军、刘梅、刘博等,2013;曾国军、孙树芝,2016)。食品健康则是文化创新过程中的重要内容,不同地区对于食品健康的认知具有较大的地域差异,例如,同属于“卑湿之地”的湖南和广东在食品健康的观念上差异巨大,湖南人无辣不欢,而广东人则强调“食本味”,口味较为清淡。跨地方餐饮企业面向多重消费者群体的境况使其挣扎在饮食原真性与食品健康的两端(赵旭东、王莎莎,2013;许惠娇、贺聪志、叶敬忠,2017),如何既能顾及不同消费群体关于食品健康的诉求,又适当维持其原真性,保持其竞争优势?消费者更为注重跨地方饮食的原真性还是其健康性?跨地方生产者与在地消费者的协商过程是怎样的?对此,有必要从消费者对食品健康的认知以及生产者对原真性生产的妥协着手,在跨地方饮食文化生产的语境中,探讨不同消费者群体对饮食原真性和食品健康性的认知和选择差异,以期指导企业的跨地方经营。

此外,在经济全球化背景的冲击下,地方性的饮食网络不断被整合进全球化的食品供应体系,原真性逐渐沦为食品健康的代名词。既往研究强调了食品的原产地地理标志(周尚意、张晶,2015),并且普遍认为原真性的价值高于食品本身的价值,而且原真性是造成地区垄断利润的重要因素。一些研究还探讨了原真性如何影响人们对于食品体验的意愿、感知到的风险以及文化熟悉度等的调节作用(Youn & Kim,2018)。但在总体上,这些研究仍未关注原真性与食品健康的关系及其形成机制。或者说,以往研究多认为原真性是食品健康的潜台词,而消费者不加思考地接受了这一营销陷阱。例如,在20世纪60、70年代的南非地区,很多商业组织精心挑选了南非的少女,并将她们送到欧洲超市、展销会等场所,通过身体的装扮和展示,特别是肢体语言和符号特征,来向欧洲地区营销非洲的柑橘产品(Mather & Mackenzie,2006)。Mather认为,在这一跨国的食品贸易体系中,食品的健康价值被符号化为原真的非洲形象,例如橘色的头发、橘色的肌肤、年轻的身体等。隐含其中的假设在于,食品的原真性充分保障了食品的健康,并且食品健康的标准是统一的,在不同人群、不同文化、不同生活方式中具有一种“食品健康超有机体”(钱俊希、朱竑,2015)。另外,在当前中国的一些食品不安全事件的冲击下,很多白领和中产阶层开始转向原产地在国外的食品消费,比如方兴未艾的奶粉代购、外国食品的直销网络等。因此,原产地成为食品健康的标志,食品的健康被粗浅地理解为营养要素或者热量、非油炸等指标,其背后是人们被剥夺的健康理念和知识,特别是西方霸权营养观对中国食品消费观念的重塑和影响。

总之,在经济全球化的背景下,食品的原真性逐渐被符号化和标准化,并被用来应对人们关于食品健康的观念、食品健康标准的差异。因此,未来对于食品原真性与食品健康之间关系的研究,应当着重融入(抑或回归)地方化、差异化的视角。特别是在处理全球化供应网络下的食品健康与原真性关系时,应当重点关注其中的权力结构、话语权、结构性不平等等方面的潜在话题。

四、现代性视角下的食品安全与食品健康

食品安全的最终目标是保障食品的健康,但烹饪过程中的强制性要求也可能损失食品的营养成分。例如,方便面一类的工业化食品,虽然能保障基本的食品安全,并且在满足便利性的同时提供了“蔬菜包”“肉酱包”等,但对机械化的生产流程、规范化的生产工艺的恪守也致使公众对其营养价值产生怀疑。又如,广泛应用于食品行业的“柠檬黄”“牛肉膏”等,其安全程度到底如何,营养和健康价值又有几何?这些问题既是在现代性和流动性冲击下,家庭的、私人的厨房空间向陌生的、公共的消费空间延展过程中必然发生的个人问题(赵旭东、王莎莎,2013),也是资本逻辑和市场化运作下,原本相对固定的食物转变为频繁流动的消费商品的过程中引发的社会问题(张纯刚、齐顾波,2015;许惠娇、贺聪志、叶敬忠,2017)。因此,对于这一问题的解答,不仅需要政策制定者自上而下地推行食品安全保障政策,也需要了解生产者和消费者对于食品安全与食品健康的态度,以期建立食品从生产到消费、从农田到餐桌的饮食文化生产体系。

食品安全与健康价值是连续的统一体(Hayes-Conroy & Hayes-Conroy,2013),但现代社会将其割裂并以不同标准来评判其安全性和健康价值,造成健康价值与食品安全的差序格局。既有研究显示,现代性的主要特征就是社会的专业分工不断细化和精准化,但其实质上是将体系层面的问题简单化为不同部分的加总,这在食品领域尤为明显。例如,中国传统文化强调“药食同源”,食材和药材都是在被食用之后给人体带来促进健康的作用,二者在安全性与健康性上是程度上的不同而非对立。现代性通过生物化学技术和传媒的营销设计等方式,将食品的安全性与食品的健康价值分隔开来,其实是人们对现代营销话语缺少反思的结果(Delpeuch,Maire & Monnier,et al.,2009;Kim,Lee & Ryu,2018)。“水土不服”则是食品安全与食品健康的一个反例。现代性推崇统一的、有界限的食品安全与食品健康的标准,但在实质上是从生产端对消费情境的霸权统治,忽视“一方水土养育一方人”的环境差异性和食品健康环境的缺失(例如“致胖的环境”)(Delpeuch,Maire & Monnier,et al.,2009)。而在家庭消费层面,也常出现差异化的食品消费形态和变动的食谱规律。例如西方新文化地理学的鼻祖Jackson(2009)Changing Families,Changing Food一书中,以家庭中年轻女性成员的备孕、怀孕、分娩、养育小孩的全过程为例,展现了家庭食品的安全与食品健康之间关系的协调过程,并且指出家庭食品的安全与食品健康的价值是一个不断变化的连续体。因此,现代性所裹挟的是统一但又有区别的食品安全与健康标准,通过割裂看待食品的安全与健康价值,将食品的健康价值建构成等级化的、有差别的,加剧了食品安全与食品健康的分离。

综上所述,现代性的食品生产与消费体系中,食品安全与食品健康被视为分割的独立体,并不断加剧食品安全与食品健康之间的冲突。因此,有必要回归食品安全与健康连续体的视角并借此重新审视食品对于人的作用和价值。进一步地,还需要超越现有的自然科学,特别是生物化学等,对食品安全和健康领域的统摄,融入社会心理视域下的食品安全和食品健康视角,系统化地分析食品对人体的价值。

五、结论与展望

1. 研究结论

现代性是当代中国社会发展的主线,在其影响下,流动性不断加剧且重新定义着地方性。本文从流动性与跨地方视角分析了当代食品体制存在的问题,特别是流动性视角下的食品原真性与食品安全、地方性视角下的食品原真性与食品健康以及现代性视角下的食品安全与食品健康之间的矛盾与协调关系。结果表明:

第一,流动性的饮食生产与消费导致食品的生产方式、消费群体等渐趋复杂,食品的原真性不再局限于地方情境中,而是转变为针对外来消费者、流动瞬时的消费情境等。因此,在表征和重塑食品原真性的同时,需要重新思考食品安全的呈现方式。尤其要注意食品安全的个体差异性、主体间性等,安全的食品是原真性的基础和保障。

第二,全球化冲击地方性并不断地将地方整合进全球饮食体系中,造成食品原真性与食品健康之间的失调。这种失调本质上是对人所处的生活环境的刻意忽视,而原真性则沦落为食品健康的外在标准。对于当代全球化的食品体系的分析,应当融入政治经济学视角,重点分析潜在其中的结构性不平等和权力失衡。

第三,现代性割裂了食品安全与食品健康的统一体,加剧了二者间的冲突与矛盾。的确,现代性通过技术进步提升了生产效率、改善了生活条件,但传统的生活理念和食品的安全与健康思维也值得且必须传承和发扬。特别地,中国饮食文化强调“药食同源”“水土不服”等,这些理念都是人与自然、人体与食物之间关系的思想精华,因而有必要反思现代性对人的异化和对食品价值的割裂分化。

本文的创新有二:第一,尽管已有学者针对食品原真性与标准化构建了二维分析框架,但这些研究基本上都是从食品生产者视角进行的分析,忽视了消费者、消费社会、消费权力等因素对食品体系的影响。本文从食品原真性、食品安全与食品健康价值3个维度出发构建的分析框架,有助于重联食品生产与食品消费的关系网络,更能从体系化层面反思当前的饮食体制。第二,本文尝试突破自然科学领域对食品安全与食品健康的界定和研究的垄断,食品安全与健康并非只有自然科学的标准和解释,传统的食品安全和食品健康的观念与智慧来源于日常生活实践,也值得借鉴。本文所强调的原真性,即对日常生活中的食品观念的关注,食品安全与健康价值需要考虑原真的食品生产消费方式、情境和质量传统,这也将统合自然科学与社会科学对食品安全和食品健康的解读。

2. 研究展望

针对本文所界定的饮食体系及其3个维度,未来研究还需要超越食品本身,进一步反观流动性与跨地方生产、现代性与传统性的关系。因此,本文提出如下研究方向和议题:

第一,相对于国外饮食研究中提出的质量转向、文化转向、替代性转向、饮食正义、食品沙漠和饮食域等概念,国内的饮食研究仍显不足且薄弱,特别是缺乏对食品消费背后的文化意义的挖掘。长期以来,国内饮食研究被食品加工、食品运输、食品安全等领域垄断,关注的是食品的生产、储存、运输等层面,忽视了食品消费的“社会和文化生命”内涵,更缺乏对流动性和现代性背景下饮食文化变迁和再生产过程的研究。因而,后续研究应重点关注社会情境对饮食体制的影响。特别是饮食的后生产主义转型使得食品生产超越了物质主义和价格铁律,传统的政治经济生产逻辑逐渐被食品消费的符号意义和食品的社会功能所瓦解,食品消费不再仅仅是地方文化的被动反映,更演变成为人们通过主动消费来彰显身份地位的行为。

第二,后续研究可以关注主流食品生产体制以及食品安全问题高发的背景下人们的应对方式及其对社会文化的影响。譬如,在全球同质化竞争的威胁下,人们开始重新反思食品与地方的分离,衍生出“小而美”“替代性”等策略来挑战主流食品生产体制,“带有故事的食品”被人们用来应对食品的工业化生产所带来的安全和健康挑战。

第三,针对国内食品研究与西方的巨大差异,未来的研究还可以继续以跨地方生产情境中的食品原真性、安全、健康为分析视角,从政策制定者、食品生产者和消费者出发,全面探讨跨地方食品生产过程中的文化汇融和食品文化的传承与创新,以期回应经济全球化冲击下食品文化的在地化和跨地方问题,尝试探讨食品生产和消费背后的权力、意义与认同,最终建立从基础理论到案例实证的全方位的饮食文化生产研究体系。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


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From Politics to co-operation: The dynamics of embeddedness in alternative food supply chains

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https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2009.00491.x      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Alternative food supply chains have been the subject of a number of studies utilising the concept of embeddedness to account for their various dimensions, but they have been little analysed in terms of the relations between producers. As part of the body of research into the social construction of markets, this article aims to consider the nature and dynamics of ties between producers involved in the development of these chains. The study presented here relies on a series of quantitative and longitudinal network analyses in different systems of direct selling in the South of France. We consider here the example of a farmers' market and contrast it with vegetable box schemes. Our research demonstrates that alternative supply chains can renew ties between producers by decoupling political relations and through the embeddedness of sales activity in technical and friendship relations, both of which favour co-operation towards innovation. This article also aims to encourage a reconsideration of sociometry, as well as alternative food supply chains, to analyse and accompany sustainable local food systems.
[4] Cohen E, Avieli N.

Food in tourism: Attraction and impediment

[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2004, 31(4): 755~778.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.02.003      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[5] Cook I, Crang P.

The world on a plate: Culinary culture, displacement and geographical knowledges

[J]. Journal of Material Culture, 1996, 1(2): 131~153.

https://doi.org/10.1177/135918359600100201      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This article uses claims about the local globalization of culinary culture to stage an argument about the character of material cultural geographies and their spaces of identity practice. It approaches these geographies in two ways. First, it views foods not only as placed cultural artefacts, but also as dis-placed materials and practices, inhabiting many times and spaces which, far from being neatly bounded, bleed into and mutually constitute each other. Second, it considers the geographical knowledges, or understandings, of foods' geo graphies, mobilized within circuits of culinary culture, outlining their pro duction through processes of commodity fetishism, and arguing for forms of critical intervention that work with the fetish rather than attempt to reach behind it.
[6] Cox R.

Turning to food: Geography, food production/consumption and the cultural turn

[C]// Roseneil S, Frosh S. Social Research after the Cultural Turn. Berlin: Springer, 2012: 160~177.

[本文引用: 1]     

[7] D’Amico M, Di Vita G, Chinnici G, et al.

Short food supply chain and locally produced wines: Factors affecting consumer behavior

[J]. Italian Journal of Food Science, 2014, 26(3): 329~334.

https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v58.24024      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

ABSTRACT This study explores a short food supply chain by analyzing direct sales of locally produced wine in Italy. The paper discusses the main factors influencing the purchase of locally produced wine through econometric analysis of a sample of Italian consumers using a binary logit model. The results reveal the profile of wine consumers who buy directly from wine producers including their attitudes and preferences. The findings provide important insight to managers and policy makers in terms of marketing and policy development.
[8] Delind L B.

Of bodies, place, and culture: Re-situating local food

[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2006, 19(2): 121~146.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10806-005-1803-z      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In the US, an increasingly popular local food movement is propelled along by structural arguments that highlight the inequity and unsustainablity of the current agri-food system and by individually based arguments that highlight personal health and well-being. Despite clear differences in their foci, the deeper values contained in each argument tend to be neglected or lost, while local innovations assume instrumental and largely market-based forms. By narrowing their focus to the rational and the economic, movement activists tend to overlook (or marginalize) the role of the sensual, the emotional, the expressive for maintaining layered sets of embodied relationships to food and to place. This paper seeks to show that cultural and nonrational elements are fundamental to local food discussions. It proceeds from the assumption that, without them as full partners, the movement cannot be sustained in any felt, practiced, or committed way. To this end, it discusses the concept of place and bodies in place, as well as the connections between the ecological and the cultural, the sensual and the scientific. It offers a new set of questions and conceptual tools with which advocates and activists may round, and thereby revalue and restore, the promise and practice of local food.
[9] Delpeuch F, Maire B, Monnier E, et al.

Globesity: A Planet Out of Control?

[M] London: Routledge, 2009.

[本文引用: 2]     

[10] Eakin H, Connors J P, Wharton C, et al.

Identifying attributes of food system sustainability: Emerging themes and consensus

[J]. Agriculture and Human Values, 2017, 34(3): 757~773.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-016-9754-8      URL      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

Achieving food system sustainability is one of the more pressing challenges of this century. Over the last decades, experts from diverse disciplines and intellectual traditions have worked to document
[11] Farsund A A, Daugbjerg C, Langhelle O.

Food security and trade: Reconciling discourses in the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Trade Organization

[J]. Food Security, 2015, 7(2): 383~391.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0428-y      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[12] Feagan R.

The place of food: Mapping out the ‘local’ in local food systems

[J]. Progress in Human Geography, 2007, 31(1): 23~42.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132507073527      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

ABSTRACT Local food systems' movements, practices, and writings pose increasingly visible structures of resistance and counter-pressure to conventional globalizing food systems. The place of food seems to be the quiet centre of the discourses emerging with these movements. The purpose of this paper is to identify issues of 'place', which are variously described as the 'local' and 'community' in the local food systems literature, and to do so in conjunction with the geographic discussion focused on questions and meanings around these spatial concepts. I see raising the profile of questions, complexity and potential of these concepts as an important role and challenge for the scholar-advocate in the realm of local food systems, and for geographers sorting through them. Both literatures benefit from such a foray. The paper concludes, following a 'cautiously normative' tone, that there is strong argument for emplacing our food systems, while simultaneously calling for careful circumspection and greater clarity regarding how we delineate and understand the 'local'. Being conscious of the constructed nature of the 'local', 'community' and 'place' means seeing the importance of local social, cultural and ecological particularity in our everyday worlds, while also recognizing that we are reflexively and dialectially tied to many and diverse locals around the world.
[13] Germann Molz J.

Eating difference: The cosmopolitan mobilities of culinary tourism

[J]. Space and Culture, 2007, 10(1): 77~93.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1206331206296383      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[14] Gibson S.

Food mobilities: Traveling, dwelling, and eating cultures

[J]. Space and Culture, 2007, 10(1): 4~21.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1206331206296756      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[15] Goodman D.

Ontology matters: The relational materiality of nature and agro-food studies

[J]. Sociologia Ruralis, 2001, 41(2): 182~200.

https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00177      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This paper examines the question of ontological choice in agro-food studies, and emphasizes that such choices are consequential, determining analytical points of entry, arenas of theory and praxis, and normative positioning. These questions are explored by examining the privileged place of the labour process in the development of agro-food studies and, as a more specific illustration, in analyses of agro-biotechnology. It is suggested that the modernist ontological priorities embedded in the unreconstructed conceptualization of the labour process not only have been ignored but also have found an unexamined place in post-structuralist agrarian political economy. The discussion closes by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of actor-network theory as an alternative avenue of critical engagement with the 'new' bio-politics of agro-food networks.
[16] Goodman D, Watts M.

Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring

[M]. London: Routledge, 1998: 514~516.

[本文引用: 1]     

[17] Hayes-Conroy A.

Feeling slow food: Visceral fieldwork and empathetic research relations in the alternative food movement

[J]. Geoforum, 2010, 41(5): 734~742.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2010.04.005      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[18] Hayes-Conroy A, Hayes-Conroy J.

Doing Nutrition Differently: Critical Approaches to Diet and Dietary Intervention

[M]. Farnham, England: Routledge, 2013.

[本文引用: 2]     

[19] Jackson P.

Changing Families, Changing Food

[M]. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

[本文引用: 1]     

[20] Kim K S, Lee T J, Ryu K.

Alternative healthy food choice for tourists: Developing Buddhist temple cuisine

[J]. International Journal of Tourism Research, 2018, 20(3): 267~276.

https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2162      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

A key goal of tourism marketing is to use information to modify travelers' behavior to increase the number of days spent in a state as well as the level of visitor expenditures. Many tourism promoters are concerned about the efficiency of alternative locations and forms of tourist information centers in meeting the information needs of visitors traveling in the state. Consistent with previous... [Show full abstract]
[21] MacLaurin T L.

Food safety in travel and tourism

[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2001, 39(3): 332~333.

https://doi.org/10.1177/004728750103900316      URL      [本文引用: 3]      摘要

Highlights of the first National Sanitation Foundation (an independent, non-profit, standards development and product certification organization specializing in public health safety and environmental quality) international conference on food safety in travel and tourism, in Barcelona, Spain, on 12-14 April 2000 are described. 263 delegates from 32 countries are among the attendees, the majority...
[22] Mak A H N, Lumbers M, Eves A.

Globalisation and food consumption in tourism

[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2012, 39(1): 171~196.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.05.010      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In this paper, the common perception of globalisation as a threat to local gastronomic identities is contrasted by its other facet, as an impetus that opens up new opportunities for reinvention of local gastronomic products and identities. Relevant perspectives and theories of globalisation are reviewed to provide a theoretical framework for the study. Key dimensions underlying food consumption in tourism are elucidated, and the impacts of globalisation on the culinary supply and tourist food consumption are discussed. A conceptual model is developed in an attempt to illustrate the influence of globalisation on food consumption in tourism. This study concludes that from the world culture theory perspective, globalisation can be an impetus to reconstruct or reinvent local gastronomic traditions and particularities.
[23] Mather C, Mackenzie C.

The body in transnational commodity cultures: South Africa’s Outspan ‘girls’ campaign

[J]. Social & Cultural Geography, 2006, 7(3): 403~420.

https://doi.org/10.1080/14649360600715144      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This paper is about an extraordinary promotional campaign for South African citrus exports in Europe during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The campaign involved hiring and then training young, white South African women to encourage citrus sales in supermarkets and corner stores in South Africa's main European citrus markets. We describe the origins of the campaign in the late 1960s and document its progress through the 1970s until its demise in the mid-1970s. Our analysis emphasizes the extent to which the promotion of Outspan oranges relied on the bodily performances of Outspan ‘girls’ and the potential impact of consuming citrus on the bodies of British consumers. Changes in the knowledge associated with the Outspan brand demanded new body performances from the Outspan ‘girls’, and body expectations/desires of potential citrus consumers. The case study shows how food may be inscribed on the bodies of those promoting and consuming transnationally traded food commodities. Le corps et les cultures transnationales des biens de consommation: la campagne des 00filles03 d'Outspan de l'Afrique du Sud Cet article porte sur une campagne de publicité inou07e lancée pendant la fin des années 1960 et le début des années 1970 visant à promouvoir l'exportation d'agrumes en provenance d'Afrique du Sud vers l'Europe. On pouvait voir dans cette campagne des jeunes femmes sud-africaines de race blanche engagées puis formées pour promouvoir les ventes d'agrumes de l'Afrique du Sud dans le marché des grandes surfaces alimentaires et épiceries européennes. Nous reprenons les principaux éléments de cette campagne, de ses origines dans les années 1960, son progrès dans les années 1970 et sa disparition au milieu des années 1970. Notre analyse met l'accent sur l'ampleur avec laquelle la promotion des oranges de marque Outspan était dépendante des performances corporelles des 00filles03 d'Outspan et de l'effet potentiel de la consommation d'agrumes sur les corps des consommateurs britanniques. Des changements au niveau des connaissances sur la marque Outspan exigeaient de nouvelles performances corporelles de la part des 00filles03 d'Outspan et de nouvelles attentes et désirs corporels des consommateurs potentiels d'agrumes. Cette étude de cas montre comment la nourriture peut être gravée dans les corps des promoteurs et consommateurs de produits agroalimentaires échangés sur le marché transnational. Mots-clefs: corps, transnational, bien de consommation, Outspan, agrume, Afrique du Sud, apartheid. El cuerpo en culturas de mercancía transnacional: la Campa09a de las ‘chicas’ Outspan de Sudáfrica Este papel trata la campa09a publicitaria extraordinaria para fruta cítrica exportada de Sudáfrica que tuvo lugar en Europa durante los a09os 60 y 70. Para esta campa09a se contrataron y capacitaron a mujeres jóvenes y blancas sudafricanas para fomentar la venta de fruta cítrica en los supermercados y tiendas de los principales mercados europeos de fruta cítrica de Sudáfrica. Trazamos el origen de la campa09a en los últimos a09os de la década de los 60 y documentamos su progreso por los a09os 70 hasta su desaparición a mediados de los 70. Nuestro análisis enfatiza hasta qué punto esta campa09a publicitaria para naranjas Outspan dependía de las representaciones corporales de las chicas Outspan y el impacto que el consumo de fruta cítrica podría tener sobre los cuerpos de los consumidores británicos. Cambios en el conocimiento asociado con la marca Outspan les exigía nuevas representaciones corporales de las ‘chicas Outspan’ y esperanzas/deseos corporales de posibles consumidores de frutas cítricas. El estudio de caso indica cómo la comida puede ser inscrita en los cuerpos de aquellos que fomentan y consumen mercancía alimenticia de comercio transnacional. Palabras claves: cuerpo, transnacional, mercancía, Outspan, fruta cítrica, Sudáfrica, apartheid.
[24] Ong A S J, Frewer L, Chan M Y.

Cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition:A review

[J]. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2017, 57(11): 2330~2342.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1013622      URL      PMID: 25976736      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

The study of cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition has been relatively under-developed. This review paper looks at food and/or food-related studies that have utilized cognitive dissonance as a primary construct in a priori theorization and hypothesis-formulation, examining the ways in which the dissonance construct has been used and its corresponding effects on various food-related outcomes in those studies. Current gaps and critical issues underlying cognitive dissonance investigation in food and nutrition research are also identified and discussed.
[25] Onozaka Y, Nurse G, McFadden D T.

Local food consumers: How motivations and perceptions translate to buying behavior

[J]. Choices, 2010, 25(1): 1~6.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This article examines consumer perceptions of local food and their motivations for purchasing local food products. A survey was conducted on 1052 primary grocery shoppers in the USA. Findings show that consumers who buy directly from farmers tend to be more strongly influenced by those around them and are more confident that their actions make a difference for public as well as private outcomes.
[26] Opara L U.

Traceability in agriculture and food supply chain: A review of basic concepts, technological implications, and future prospects

[J]. Food, Agriculture and Environment, 2003, 1(1): 101~106.

[本文引用: 1]     

[27] Ponte S.

Governing through quality: Conventions and supply relations in the value chain for South African wine

[J]. Sociologia Ruralis, 2009, 49(3): 236~257.

https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.2009.49.issue-3      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[28] Ricketts Hein J, Ilbery B, Kneafsey M.

Distribution of local food activity in England and Wales: An index of food relocalization

[J]. Regional Studies, 2006, 40(3): 289~301.

https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400600631533      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. and Kneafsey M. (2006) Distribution of local food activity in England and Wales: an Index of Food Relocalization, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Despite much interest in the relocalization of the food supply chain in England and Wales, it is unclear whether local food systems are more developed in some areas than others. The aim is to identify current areas of local food activity in England and Wales through the application of an Index of Food Relocalization. The Index is developed by using indicators related to the production and marketing of local food products and results suggest a complex geography associated with such activities. Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. et Kneafsey M. (2006) La distribution de la production alimentaire locale en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles: une indice de la relocalisation alimentaire, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Malgré un vif intérêt pour la relocalisation de la cha06ne alimentaire en Angeterre et au Pays de Galles, il n'est pas tout à fait évident si, oui ou non, des systèmes alimentaires locaux sont plus développés dans certaines zones qu'ailleurs. Cet article cherche à identifier des zones de production alimentaires existantes en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles à travers une indice de relocalisation alimentaire (Index of Food Relocalisation). L'indice est développée à partir des indicateurs qui se rapportent à la production et au marketing des produits alimenatires locaux, et les résultats laissent supposer que de telles activités entra06nent une géographie complexe Produits alimentaires locaux, Production, Marketing, Indice de relocalisation alimentaire, Angleterre et Pays de Galles Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. und Kneafsey M. (2006) Die Verteilung 02rtlicher Lebensmittelunternehmen in England und Wales: eine Liste des Standortwechsels von Lebensmittelquellen, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Trotz betr01chtlichen Interesses am Standortwechsel der Lebensmittelerszeugungsketten in England und Wales ist es nicht klar, ob 02rtliche Lebensmittelsysteme in manchen Gebieten besser entwickelt sind als in anderen. Es ist das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes, gegenw01rtige Gebiete 02rtlicher Lebensmittelunternehmen in England und Wales mittels eines Indexes von Standortwechseln von Nahrungsmittelquellen zu analysieren. Der Index wird mit Hilfe von Indikatoren entwickelt, die sich auf Erzeugung und Vermarktung 02rtlicher Nahrungsmittel beziehen, wobei die Ergebnisse nahelegen, da08 diese Aktivit01ten von einem komplexen geographischen Verteilungssystem begleitet werden. Einheimische Lebensmittel, Erzeugung, Vermarktung, Index des Standortwechsels der Lebensmittelquellen, England und Wales Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. y Kneafsey M. (2006) Distribución de la actividad local de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales: 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Pese al sumo interés mostrado en la relocalización de la cadena del abastecimiento de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales, no está claro si los sistemas locales de abastecimiento de alimentos están más desarrollados en unas áreas que en otras. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar cuáles son las áreas de abastecimiento local de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales en función de un 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos. Este índice se basa en el uso de indicadores relacionados con la producción y el comercio de productos alimenticios locales y los resultados muestran que existe una geografía compleja asociada a tales actividades. Alimentos locales, Producción, Comercio, 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos, Inglaterra y Gales
[29] Schupp J L.

Cultivating better food access? The role of farmers’ markets in the U. S. local food movement

[J]. Rural Sociology, 2017, 82(2): 318~348.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12124      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Abstract The local food movement has grown substantially in the United States in recent years. Proponents have hailed this growth as a shift away from a conventional food system rife with inequality toward one that introduces more just outcomes for society. While the movement's development and popularity have proliferated, little research has examined nationally how successful it is at delivering on its promises. By combining the social movement and food system literatures with quantitative methodology, this article examines the accessibility of the farmers' market across the United States. Using multivariate logistic regression, the analysis focuses on several identifying characteristics of individuals within and characteristics of neighborhoods across the United States to explore what increases (or decreases) the likelihood of a farmers' market being located within their boundaries. The results suggest that several social, economic, and racial differences exist between those living in areas with farmers' markets and those in areas that do not. Additionally, the analysis found that several neighborhood characteristics significantly influence the likelihood of a farmers market being present, including a neighborhood's socioeconomic status, the quality of neighborhood infrastructure, participation rates in social support programs, and the prevalence of poverty. In addition to posing questions of accessibility for the local food movement this research contributes to our understanding of grassroots social movements by examining the avenues and potential limitations that they negotiate while ensuring their stated goals are reached.
[30] Sims R.

Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience

[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2009, 17(3): 321~336.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802359293      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of “alternative” food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as “authentic” products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that “local food” has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.
[31] Telligman A L, Worosz M R, Bratcher C L.

A qualitative study of Southern U. S. consumers’ top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef

[J]. Appetite, 2017(109): 1~10.

[本文引用: 1]     

[32] Tikkanen I.

Maslow’s hierarchy and food tourism in Finland: Five cases

[J]. British Food Journal, 2007, 109(9): 721~734.

https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700710780698      URL      摘要

Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the sectors of food tourism in Finland by using Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the classification. Design/methodology/approach – Previous research on food tourism concentrates on the role of food as an attraction, as a cultural phenomenon, and as an experience. Moreover, food from productional and motivational viewpoints is reviewed briefly. The empirical data consists both of the secondary data and an interview. Findings – The findings introduce five sectors of food tourism where the needs and motivations are linked with Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Practical implications – The practical implications are that the food tourism promoters could emphasize the needs and motivations when marketing food tourism services. Originality/value – Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified by the hierarchy of needs are presented, providing practical implications for food tourism promoters and thus offering motivations for food tourism.
[33] Van der Ploeg J D, Ye J Z, Schneider S.

Rural development through the construction of new, nested, markets: Comparative perspectives from China, Brazil and the European Union

[J]. Journal of Peasant Studies, 2012, 39(1): 133~173.

https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2011.652619      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[34] Van Rijswijk W, Frewer L J.

Consumer perceptions of food quality and safety and their relation to traceability

[J]. British Food Journal, 2008, 110(10): 1034~1046.

https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700810906642      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Purpose - The research presented here aims to gain understanding of consumers驴 perceptions of the concepts of food quality and safety, two concepts that play an important role in how consumers perceive food, and that are used in decision making. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 163 consumers) were held in four European countries (Germany, France, Italy and Spain). Consumers' own definitions of the two concepts of food quality and safety were examined, together with the perceived interrelationship between quality and safety, and whether these concepts were linked to improved food chain traceability. Findings - The results indicate that most consumers see food quality and food safety as interlinked concepts, which becomes evident in their partly overlapping definitions of the two concepts. Consumers believe both food safety and quality are important to food in general, but pay relatively more attention to food quality when purchasing a product. Traceability was linked not only to food safety, but also to food quality in the mind of the consumer. Research limitations/implications - Future research on consumer perceptions of food quality and safety will need to take account of the observation that these concepts are strongly related in consumers驴 minds, and therefore cannot be easily separated in explaining consumer choices. Originality/value - Instead of investigating consumer perceptions of food quality and safety in relation to specific products, consumer perceptions of food quality and food safety in general, and how these were related to each other, were studied. Further understanding was gained of how consumers might use these concepts in judgements about food, which, in turn may influence their purchase decisions
[35] Wang N.

Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience

[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 1999, 26(2): 349~370.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00103-0      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This paper aims at a conceptual clarification of the meanings of authenticity in tourist experiences. Three approaches are discussed, objectivism, constructivism, and postmodernism, and the limits of object-related authenticity are also exposed. It is suggested that existential authenticity is an alternative source in tourism, regardless of whether the toured objects are authentic. This concept is further classified into two different dimensions: intra-personal and inter-personal. This demonstrates that existential authenticity can explain a greater variety of tourist experiences, and hence helps enhance the explanatory power of the authenticity-seeking model in tourism.
[36] Watts D C H, Ilbery B, Maye D.

Making reconnections in agro-food geography: Alternative systems of food provision

[J]. Progress in Human Geography, 2005, 29(1): 22~40.

https://doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph526oa      URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[37] Wilks J, Oldenburg B.

Tourist health: The silent factor in customer service

[J]. Australian Journal of Hospitality Management, 1995, 2(2): 13~23.

URL      [本文引用: 1]     

[38] Winter M.

Embeddedness, the new food economy and defensive localism

[J]. Journal of Rural Studies, 2003a, 19(1): 23~32.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00053-0      URL      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

This paper examines embeddedness and the turn to quality in agro-food research. It suggests that the notion of embeddedness requires critical scrutiny and that the implications of the turn to quality for the geography of agriculture may not be as radical as some have suggested. The relationship between quality and local embeddedness is explored in some detail drawing on empirical work on food purchases in five rural localities of England and Wales. It is suggested that the patterns of food purchasing revealed, with local food figuring more highly than organic, illustrate a defensive politics of localism rather than a strong turn to quality based around organic and ecological production. Far from heralding an alternative post-global green future, as promoted by a range of proponents of sustainable agriculture, the turn to local food may cover many different forms of agriculture, encompassing a variety of consumer motivations and giving rise to a wide range of politics.
[39] Winter M.

Geographies of food: Agro-food geographies making reconnections

[J]. Progress in Human Geography, 2003b, 27(4): 505~513.

https://doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph446pr      URL      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

Examines sets of reconnections in agro-food geography. Farming and food; Food and politics; Food and nature.
[40] Ye S, Xiao H G, Zhou L Q.

Commodification and perceived authenticity in commercial homes

[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2018(71): 39~53.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.003      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Commercial homes represent the commodification of a rural home that affects its authenticity. This study uses a quantitative approach to examine the interaction of commodification and perceived authenticity of commercial homes in rural areas. Both commodification and perceived authenticity are treated as multi-dimensional and measurable constructs. Three sets of hypotheses regarding their relationships are tested with a hierarchical dataset comprising 188 commercial home owners and 873 tourists in northern Zhejiang Province, China. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling indicate that commodification of place and labor negatively affects cognitive authenticity, and commodification of hosts goals negatively affects relational authenticity. In contrast, no significant effects are found on constructive authenticity. A conclusive model is then proposed, and research implications and limitations are discussed.
[41] Youn H, Kim J H.

Is unfamiliarity a double-edged sword for ethnic restaurants?

[J]. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2018(68): 23~31.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.09.003      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

Unfamiliar aspects of ethnic foods are found to enhance both perceived authenticity and perceived risk. Whereas the former positively influences customers evaluations of foods and induces consumption behavior, the latter negatively affects customer behavior. Due to these conflicting effects, ethnic restaurateurs face a dilemma of whether to emphasize unfamiliar aspects to increase customer perception of authenticity or to eliminate them to reduce perceived risk. Thus, this study investigated (1) the effects of food information on perceived authenticity and perceived risk and (2) the comparative influences of perceived authenticity and perceived risk on customer satisfaction and purchase intention. The results revealed that unfamiliar ingredients influenced both perceived authenticity and perceived risk, whereas unfamiliar dish names only affected perceived authenticity. Additionally, the results support the notion that ethnic restaurant managers should endeavor to convey the uniqueness of their ethnic foods to maximize the effect of perceived authenticity over that of perceived risk.
[42] 林俊帆, 林耿.

意义、权力与再物质化: 食物消费地理新进展

[J]. 人文地理, 2014, 29(6): 40~46.

URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

食物是人地关系的天然纽带。自伯克利学派开始关注食品消费研究起,食物研究在国外已属发展较成熟的领域,食物消费研究更是新近地理学关注的热点之一,与家庭研究、性别地理研究关联密切。食物消费主流研究很大部分关涉意义诠释和文化建构,包括文化和身份认同、意义空间塑造、味道与边界、旅游体验、地方指向等命题。食物消费研究也正在经历和吸收一些变化中的研究思潮,特别是警惕过度的"文化转向",重视有关政治地理和再物质化/物质地理的理论主张等。这种研究取向的变化及多元化趋势,作为新文化地理研究的一个缩影,正逐渐对国内食物消费地理研究产生影响。
[43] 钱俊希, 朱竑.

新文化地理学的理论统一性与话题多样性

[J]. 地理研究, 2015, 34(3): 422~436.

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj201503003      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

新文化地理学起源于20世纪80年代,是对传统文化地理学研究范式的激进反思甚至颠覆。首先,新文化地理学具有理论基础的统一性。其反对伯克利学派"超有机体"的文化观,认为"文化"并非具象的"物体",而是在特定的社会情景或社会关系之下由社会群体自下而上地建构或生产的。自然、景观、地方、空间等地理学要素也并非"文化"被动的表达或容器,而是建构意义与价值系统的关键维度。其次,新文化地理学具有研究话题的多样性。这种多样性不应该被简单理解为研究视角的分散性或破碎性,而是新文化地理学的文化观带来的必然结果。新文化地理学关注草根群体自下而上的文化实践、不同群体与不同尺度的文化事项、以及瞬息万变的日常生活经验。因此,这极大地拓展了其研究话题的广度。目前,中国地理学中有关文化的研究还处在比较边缘化的位置,但现代中国社会的高速变迁迫切地要求文化地理学者从文化的社会性与空间性出发,探讨社会成员赋予自然、景观、地方、空间等地理学要素的文化意义,以及文化这一维度在经济地理学、城市地理学等研究中的重要作用。
[44] 许惠娇, 贺聪志, 叶敬忠.

“去小农化”与“再小农化”?——重思食品安全问题

[J]. 农业经济问题, 2017(8): 66~75, 111.

URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

近年来,"道德失灵"、"政府失灵"、"市场失灵"等被当作引发食品安全危机的症结所在。不同学者主要从两个相反的向度来分析食品安全问题,一种是以"去政治化"的视角将食物体系的可控性不足作为食品安全问题的根源,并试图通过产业链的纵向垂直整合等"去小农化"的战略来应对食品安全问题,但这只会增强食物体系的双向控制能力,加剧生产和消费的"断联";另一种是以"再政治化"的视角尝试将现代食物体系的权力结构清晰化,并通过将食品的生产和消费与人类社区生活重新联结起来的战略构建替代性食物体系。当前我国社会上涌现出来的部分实践活动为"再小农化"创造了一定的空间,不失为重建食品信任的一种替代性选择。
[45] 尹世久, 徐迎军, 徐玲玲, .

食品安全认证如何影响消费者偏好?——基于山东省821个样本的选择实验

[J]. 中国农村经济, 2015(11): 40~53.

[本文引用: 1]     

[46] 曾国军, 李凌, 刘博, .

跨地方饮食文化生产中的原真性重塑——西贝西北菜在广州的案例研究

[J]. 地理学报, 2015, 69(12): 1871~1886.

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb201412012      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

This paper constructs a theoretical model including service quality, food quality, environment, food authenticity, environment authenticity, service authenticity, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intention, based on the literature review. A case of Northwest China Cuisine in Canton, Xibei Restaurant, has been studied to discuss the relationship among these dimensions. Some conclusions are drawn as follows. First, the authenticity of translocal restaurant includes food authenticity, environment authenticity and service authenticity. The translocal cultural production of food makes the locality prominent. The authenticity perceived by customers in translocal restaurant is symbolic authenticity or reconstructed authenticity. Second, environment authenticity and service authenticity are more important than food authenticity in translocal restaurant, which demonstrates that the service authenticity has significant influence on customer satisfaction. Third, service authenticity plays a key role in reconstructing authenticity of translocal cultural production in food. The customers' experience of authenticity in translocal restaurant is determined by the blend of both original and local food cultures.
[47] 曾国军, 刘梅.

饮食地理与跨地方饮食文化生产

[J]. 旅游学刊, 2013, 28(3): 9~11.

https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-5006.2013.03.001      URL      Magsci      [本文引用: 5]      摘要

全球化远非一个去地方化的过程,而是一个在全新关系体系中重新定义地方性,并生产出新的地方性的过程。全球化背景下,人和企业的频繁迁移突破了以往的既定边界,形成了越来越多的“跨地方(translocality)”。而饮食的地方性是食品之源,是基于全球化背景对“地方身份(place identity)”的最好表征。伴随人文地理的“批判”转向和“文化”转向,饮食地理(Geographies of Food )成为文化地理学的重要议题。Progress in Human Geography杂志曾三次报道“饮食地理学”研究相关进展。Social & Cultural Geography杂志也曾专门发表“饮食新文化地理”专题文章。这些研究都充分考虑到饮食生产和消费空间中的文化问题,成为饮食地理研究的先锋。对于饮食的研究,已经吸引了包括地方营销、文化与原真性、全球化等领域研究者的关注。
[48] 曾国军, 刘梅, 刘博, .

跨地方饮食文化生产的过程研究──基于符号化的原真性视角

[J]. 地理研究, 2013, 32(12): 2366~2376.

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlyj201312030      URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

There has been a dispute in academia as to whether globalization is the displacement of locality, or the process of redefinition, reproduction and highlighting of locality. Against the background of globalization, previously local food travels translocally with the frequent migration of people. Translocal restaurants strive to keep authenticity and meet the demands of non-local customers. The focus of translocal restaurants' culture production lies in how to keep authenticity, and what kind of authenticity to achieve. This study reviews the literature of locality, translocality, authenticity and symbolization. Based on a theoretically informed analysis of authenticity of restaurants' culture, this paper attempts to reveal an important process of translocal restaurants' culture production: symbolization of authenticity. In this study, authenticity refers to the characteristics of restaurants' culture perceived by customers, which is investigated from a constructive authenticity view. Symbolization is the process of transforming objects into symbols. Symbolized objects are easier to be recognized. Symbolization of authenticity is the realization process of authenticity imprinted by a number of clues, such as food, service, decoration and atmosphere. Translocal restaurants actualize culture production through the symbolization of authenticity. Meanwhile, this study demonstrates the necessity of the symbolization of authenticity and its circular process. It can provide a theoretical and practical basis for culture production of translocal restaurants, as well as to understand the diffusion, innovation, and development of food culture.
[49] 曾国军, 陆汝瑞.

原真性与标准化悖论: 饮食文化的消费情境与生产者响应

[J]. 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(1): 51~66, 123.

URL      [本文引用: 4]      摘要

尽管饮食文化生产已经成为饭店管理和饮食地理领域备受关注的理论问题,然而目前还缺乏一个系统的理论框架来整合分析不同消费情境下生产者与消费者在饮食文化生产中的原真性协商过程。本文基于原真性与标准化的二维分析框架,将消费情境因素纳入到饮食文化生产研究之中,对不同消费情境下生产者与消费者共同建构的原真性演变进行讨论,通过多案例分析,探讨生产者如何动态调整产品和服务类型,以适应不同消费情境。在此基础上构建了不同消费情境下饮食文化生产的战略分析框架,以助推饮食文化生产理论的发展,也将为酒店、景区及其他服务企业的扩展战略提供理论支持。
[50] 曾国军, 孙树芝.

跨地方饮食品牌重塑的理论模型与实证分析

[J]. 地理学报, 2016, 71(2): 338~351.

https://doi.org/10.11821/dlxb201602012      URL      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

采用结构方程模型,构建了基于原产地形象、在地消费文化、品牌知名度、感知质量、品牌忠诚度、购买意愿等6个概念的理论模型,以广州哈根达斯为例,探讨文化地理因素如何作用于哈根达斯在中国的跨地方品牌重塑。研究发现:1哈根达斯借助品牌重塑已在中国广泛确立其高档冰激凌品牌定位,实现了品牌升级,价格成为品牌升级的表征;2原产地形象、在地消费文化均显著正向影响品牌知名度及感知质量,进一步对品牌忠诚度及购买意愿产生积极影响;3哈根达斯的品牌知名度对品牌忠诚度的影响不显著,感知质量对购买意愿的影响不显著;4不同于购买频率低的消费者,购买频率高的消费者的感知质量不再受原产地形象和在地消费文化的影响。本研究有助于推进跨地方饮食文化生产理论的发展,也是对品牌重塑理论的补充,将促进饮食地理领域的国际对话。
[51] 曾国军, 孙树芝, 朱竑, .

全球化与地方性冲突背后的跨地方饮食文化生产——基于广州的案例

[J]. 地理科学, 2013, 33(3): 291~298.

URL      Magsci      [本文引用: 2]      摘要

<p>以原真性和标准化程度为基准, 构建基于企业视角的跨地方文化生产的理论框架, 并以广州泰国餐厅蕉叶、法国餐厅塞纳河、美国餐厅肯德基和韩国餐厅笑味轩为案例, 讨论跨地方饮食文化生产的类型和特点。结果表明, 原真性与标准化程度不同的4 种跨地方饮食文化生产类型(原真标准化文化生产、原真性文化生产、标准化文化生产、异质化文化生产)均可能受到消费者认可, 并在市场上持续经营。</p>
[52] 曾国军, 张清宇, 周世平.

价值共创视角下的操作常规与动态能力——以广州和苑酒家的两家分店为例

[J]. 管理案例研究与评论, 2018(1): 19~34.

[本文引用: 1]     

[53] 张纯刚, 齐顾波.

突破差序心态重建食物信任——食品安全背景下的食物策略与食物心态

[J]. 北京社会科学, 2015(1): 36~43.

https://doi.org/10.13262/j.bjsshkxy.bjshkx.150105      URL      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

当前,食品安全危机主要表现为工业食物体系下消费者对食物质量的不信任。在这一背景下出现了一系列试图重建食物信任的替代食物策略。这些食物策略表现出经济回嵌社会、食物信任品特性透明化等特征,并客观上构成了差序食物信任的整体社会心态。差序食物信任一方面表明多样化的地方食物策略的积极作用,另一方面提醒我们注意差序食物信任心态所隐含的倾向乃是个体自保,制度监管被架空,忽视了"监管制度的不力"和"公众对监管制度的不信任"这些根源性问题。因此,重建食物信任在鼓励多样实践的同时,更为重要的是加强食物生产规程和监管机制的建立与完善。
[54] 张凌云.

旅游学研究的新框架: 对非惯常环境下消费者行为和现象的研究

[J]. 旅游学刊, 2008, 23(10): 12~16.

Magsci      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

本文以非惯常环境及其体验这两个核心概念,重新解析了旅游的本质及其相关概念,讨论了旅游经济学和旅游社会学的研究对象和内容,并在此基础上探讨了构建旅游学的学术框架。
[55] 张凌云.

非惯常环境: 旅游核心概念的再研究——建构旅游学研究框架的一种尝试

[J]. 旅游学刊, 2009, 24(7): 12~17.

Magsci      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

本文将非惯常环境作为旅游的核心概念,阐述了非惯常环境与惯常环境的特征以及之间的相关关系,以此重新解释和推广了利珀模型和普洛格模型,以一种全新的视角,来审视旅游现象和本质,并试图以非惯常环境概念来重构旅游学研究的学科体系框架。
[56] 赵旭东, 王莎莎.

食物的信任——中国社会的饮食观念及其转变

[J]. 江苏行政学院学报, 2013(2): 75~80.

[本文引用: 2]     

[57] 周尚意, 张晶.

地方性对地理标识性产品垄断利润形成的影响——以苏州洞庭碧螺春为例

[J]. 地理科学, 2015, 35(11): 1357~1363.

https://doi.org/10.11820/dlkxjz.1997.02.011      URL      Magsci      [本文引用: 1]      摘要

<p>以地方性理论为切入点,提出历史事件为地方性的来源。在洞庭碧螺春原产地苏州吴中区东山镇和金庭镇(原西山镇)进行访谈调查,了解地方性在洞庭碧螺春生产销售方面的作用。运用级差地租理论和垄断市场理论说明了当地通过占据历史事件发生地的&ldquo;地方性&rdquo;而获得了级差地租和垄断利润。研究结论为:① 历史事件和传说具有空间不可移动性,可以成为形成级差地租的因素。② 历史传说赋予地理标识产品的质量无法通过理化手段测量,因此会出现原产地之外的茶叶假冒当地茶叶销售获利。派生的建议是当地政府需要加强对地理标识产品的宣传及法律保护。</p>

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