The trans-local cultural production of food is one of the most hotly debated research agendas and becomes emergingly significant in the area of food geography. Despite the long-term discussion on the paradox of authenticity versus standardization of food and the theoretical exploration on the food consumption context versus producers’ strategy, there is still a lack of interpretation from the views of food consumers, especially the fundamental value of food, namely food authenticity, food safety and food health. Given these shortcomings, this study proposed a three-dimensional framework including food authenticity, food safety and food health and based on this theoretical framework, this paper discussed different perceptions of the three elements from both food producers and consumers. This paper mainly discussed the negotiation process of food authenticity and food safety in the context of mobility and especially the tourism mobility; the second topic is the co-production of food authenticity and food health in the context of (re-)localization and particularly the destruction of global food network on local lifestyle and food perception; the third research agenda is the dis-continuum of food safety and food health in the process of modernization and the uniqueness of food value among different consumers. Furthermore, this research envisions the new directions on food research through both the view of food production and consumption and the integration of natural science and social science, which will promote the sustainable food culture production system in the near future.
Keywords：the production of food culture
Abstract This paper compares and contrasts commercial and academic perspectives on the nature of authenticity and the role it plays within the hospitality, tourism and leisure industries. The discussion commences by looking at the complex nature of the relationship between food and ourselves as consumers and then goes on to examine how society seeks to regulate the authenticity of food by using terms such as organic, protected and local. The paper examines some of the perspectives on object reality and a move to subsume the wide range of thought on this subject under a single, but very broad understanding, developed by Heidegger. The author challenges this view and concludes that our perceptions of authenticity involve an interaction between what we are considering (the thing), society (the others) and the individual that is contemplating this whole idea of authenticity (the self), particularly with reference to food.
From Politics to co-operation: The dynamics of embeddedness in alternative food supply chains
Alternative food supply chains have been the subject of a number of studies utilising the concept of embeddedness to account for their various dimensions, but they have been little analysed in terms of the relations between producers. As part of the body of research into the social construction of markets, this article aims to consider the nature and dynamics of ties between producers involved in the development of these chains. The study presented here relies on a series of quantitative and longitudinal network analyses in different systems of direct selling in the South of France. We consider here the example of a farmers' market and contrast it with vegetable box schemes. Our research demonstrates that alternative supply chains can renew ties between producers by decoupling political relations and through the embeddedness of sales activity in technical and friendship relations, both of which favour co-operation towards innovation. This article also aims to encourage a reconsideration of sociometry, as well as alternative food supply chains, to analyse and accompany sustainable local food systems.
This article uses claims about the local globalization of culinary culture to stage an argument about the character of material cultural geographies and their spaces of identity practice. It approaches these geographies in two ways. First, it views foods not only as placed cultural artefacts, but also as dis-placed materials and practices, inhabiting many times and spaces which, far from being neatly bounded, bleed into and mutually constitute each other. Second, it considers the geographical knowledges, or understandings, of foods' geo graphies, mobilized within circuits of culinary culture, outlining their pro duction through processes of commodity fetishism, and arguing for forms of critical intervention that work with the fetish rather than attempt to reach behind it.
Turning to food: Geography, food production/consumption and the cultural turn
ABSTRACT This study explores a short food supply chain by analyzing direct sales of locally produced wine in Italy. The paper discusses the main factors influencing the purchase of locally produced wine through econometric analysis of a sample of Italian consumers using a binary logit model. The results reveal the profile of wine consumers who buy directly from wine producers including their attitudes and preferences. The findings provide important insight to managers and policy makers in terms of marketing and policy development.
Of bodies, place, and culture: Re-situating local food
In the US, an increasingly popular local food movement is propelled along by structural arguments that highlight the inequity and unsustainablity of the current agri-food system and by individually based arguments that highlight personal health and well-being. Despite clear differences in their foci, the deeper values contained in each argument tend to be neglected or lost, while local innovations assume instrumental and largely market-based forms. By narrowing their focus to the rational and the economic, movement activists tend to overlook (or marginalize) the role of the sensual, the emotional, the expressive for maintaining layered sets of embodied relationships to food and to place. This paper seeks to show that cultural and nonrational elements are fundamental to local food discussions. It proceeds from the assumption that, without them as full partners, the movement cannot be sustained in any felt, practiced, or committed way. To this end, it discusses the concept of place and bodies in place, as well as the connections between the ecological and the cultural, the sensual and the scientific. It offers a new set of questions and conceptual tools with which advocates and activists may round, and thereby revalue and restore, the promise and practice of local food.
ABSTRACT Local food systems' movements, practices, and writings pose increasingly visible structures of resistance and counter-pressure to conventional globalizing food systems. The place of food seems to be the quiet centre of the discourses emerging with these movements. The purpose of this paper is to identify issues of 'place', which are variously described as the 'local' and 'community' in the local food systems literature, and to do so in conjunction with the geographic discussion focused on questions and meanings around these spatial concepts. I see raising the profile of questions, complexity and potential of these concepts as an important role and challenge for the scholar-advocate in the realm of local food systems, and for geographers sorting through them. Both literatures benefit from such a foray. The paper concludes, following a 'cautiously normative' tone, that there is strong argument for emplacing our food systems, while simultaneously calling for careful circumspection and greater clarity regarding how we delineate and understand the 'local'. Being conscious of the constructed nature of the 'local', 'community' and 'place' means seeing the importance of local social, cultural and ecological particularity in our everyday worlds, while also recognizing that we are reflexively and dialectially tied to many and diverse locals around the world.
Eating difference: The cosmopolitan mobilities of culinary tourism
This paper examines the question of ontological choice in agro-food studies, and emphasizes that such choices are consequential, determining analytical points of entry, arenas of theory and praxis, and normative positioning. These questions are explored by examining the privileged place of the labour process in the development of agro-food studies and, as a more specific illustration, in analyses of agro-biotechnology. It is suggested that the modernist ontological priorities embedded in the unreconstructed conceptualization of the labour process not only have been ignored but also have found an unexamined place in post-structuralist agrarian political economy. The discussion closes by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of actor-network theory as an alternative avenue of critical engagement with the 'new' bio-politics of agro-food networks.
Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring
A key goal of tourism marketing is to use information to modify travelers' behavior to increase the number of days spent in a state as well as the level of visitor expenditures. Many tourism promoters are concerned about the efficiency of alternative locations and forms of tourist information centers in meeting the information needs of visitors traveling in the state. Consistent with previous... [Show full abstract]
Highlights of the first National Sanitation Foundation (an independent, non-profit, standards development and product certification organization specializing in public health safety and environmental quality) international conference on food safety in travel and tourism, in Barcelona, Spain, on 12-14 April 2000 are described. 263 delegates from 32 countries are among the attendees, the majority...
In this paper, the common perception of globalisation as a threat to local gastronomic identities is contrasted by its other facet, as an impetus that opens up new opportunities for reinvention of local gastronomic products and identities. Relevant perspectives and theories of globalisation are reviewed to provide a theoretical framework for the study. Key dimensions underlying food consumption in tourism are elucidated, and the impacts of globalisation on the culinary supply and tourist food consumption are discussed. A conceptual model is developed in an attempt to illustrate the influence of globalisation on food consumption in tourism. This study concludes that from the world culture theory perspective, globalisation can be an impetus to reconstruct or reinvent local gastronomic traditions and particularities.
The body in transnational commodity cultures: South Africa’s Outspan ‘girls’ campaign
This paper is about an extraordinary promotional campaign for South African citrus exports in Europe during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The campaign involved hiring and then training young, white South African women to encourage citrus sales in supermarkets and corner stores in South Africa's main European citrus markets. We describe the origins of the campaign in the late 1960s and document its progress through the 1970s until its demise in the mid-1970s. Our analysis emphasizes the extent to which the promotion of Outspan oranges relied on the bodily performances of Outspan ‘girls’ and the potential impact of consuming citrus on the bodies of British consumers. Changes in the knowledge associated with the Outspan brand demanded new body performances from the Outspan ‘girls’, and body expectations/desires of potential citrus consumers. The case study shows how food may be inscribed on the bodies of those promoting and consuming transnationally traded food commodities. Le corps et les cultures transnationales des biens de consommation: la campagne des 00filles03 d'Outspan de l'Afrique du Sud Cet article porte sur une campagne de publicité inou07e lancée pendant la fin des années 1960 et le début des années 1970 visant à promouvoir l'exportation d'agrumes en provenance d'Afrique du Sud vers l'Europe. On pouvait voir dans cette campagne des jeunes femmes sud-africaines de race blanche engagées puis formées pour promouvoir les ventes d'agrumes de l'Afrique du Sud dans le marché des grandes surfaces alimentaires et épiceries européennes. Nous reprenons les principaux éléments de cette campagne, de ses origines dans les années 1960, son progrès dans les années 1970 et sa disparition au milieu des années 1970. Notre analyse met l'accent sur l'ampleur avec laquelle la promotion des oranges de marque Outspan était dépendante des performances corporelles des 00filles03 d'Outspan et de l'effet potentiel de la consommation d'agrumes sur les corps des consommateurs britanniques. Des changements au niveau des connaissances sur la marque Outspan exigeaient de nouvelles performances corporelles de la part des 00filles03 d'Outspan et de nouvelles attentes et désirs corporels des consommateurs potentiels d'agrumes. Cette étude de cas montre comment la nourriture peut être gravée dans les corps des promoteurs et consommateurs de produits agroalimentaires échangés sur le marché transnational. Mots-clefs: corps, transnational, bien de consommation, Outspan, agrume, Afrique du Sud, apartheid. El cuerpo en culturas de mercancía transnacional: la Campa09a de las ‘chicas’ Outspan de Sudáfrica Este papel trata la campa09a publicitaria extraordinaria para fruta cítrica exportada de Sudáfrica que tuvo lugar en Europa durante los a09os 60 y 70. Para esta campa09a se contrataron y capacitaron a mujeres jóvenes y blancas sudafricanas para fomentar la venta de fruta cítrica en los supermercados y tiendas de los principales mercados europeos de fruta cítrica de Sudáfrica. Trazamos el origen de la campa09a en los últimos a09os de la década de los 60 y documentamos su progreso por los a09os 70 hasta su desaparición a mediados de los 70. Nuestro análisis enfatiza hasta qué punto esta campa09a publicitaria para naranjas Outspan dependía de las representaciones corporales de las chicas Outspan y el impacto que el consumo de fruta cítrica podría tener sobre los cuerpos de los consumidores británicos. Cambios en el conocimiento asociado con la marca Outspan les exigía nuevas representaciones corporales de las ‘chicas Outspan’ y esperanzas/deseos corporales de posibles consumidores de frutas cítricas. El estudio de caso indica cómo la comida puede ser inscrita en los cuerpos de aquellos que fomentan y consumen mercancía alimenticia de comercio transnacional. Palabras claves: cuerpo, transnacional, mercancía, Outspan, fruta cítrica, Sudáfrica, apartheid.
Ong A SJ, FrewerL, Chan MY.
Cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition:A review
The study of cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition has been relatively under-developed. This review paper looks at food and/or food-related studies that have utilized cognitive dissonance as a primary construct in a priori theorization and hypothesis-formulation, examining the ways in which the dissonance construct has been used and its corresponding effects on various food-related outcomes in those studies. Current gaps and critical issues underlying cognitive dissonance investigation in food and nutrition research are also identified and discussed.
OnozakaY, NurseG, McFaddenD T.
Local food consumers: How motivations and perceptions translate to buying behavior
This article examines consumer perceptions of local food and their motivations for purchasing local food products. A survey was conducted on 1052 primary grocery shoppers in the USA. Findings show that consumers who buy directly from farmers tend to be more strongly influenced by those around them and are more confident that their actions make a difference for public as well as private outcomes.
Traceability in agriculture and food supply chain: A review of basic concepts, technological implications, and future prospects
Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. and Kneafsey M. (2006) Distribution of local food activity in England and Wales: an Index of Food Relocalization, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Despite much interest in the relocalization of the food supply chain in England and Wales, it is unclear whether local food systems are more developed in some areas than others. The aim is to identify current areas of local food activity in England and Wales through the application of an Index of Food Relocalization. The Index is developed by using indicators related to the production and marketing of local food products and results suggest a complex geography associated with such activities. Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. et Kneafsey M. (2006) La distribution de la production alimentaire locale en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles: une indice de la relocalisation alimentaire, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Malgré un vif intérêt pour la relocalisation de la cha06ne alimentaire en Angeterre et au Pays de Galles, il n'est pas tout à fait évident si, oui ou non, des systèmes alimentaires locaux sont plus développés dans certaines zones qu'ailleurs. Cet article cherche à identifier des zones de production alimentaires existantes en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles à travers une indice de relocalisation alimentaire (Index of Food Relocalisation). L'indice est développée à partir des indicateurs qui se rapportent à la production et au marketing des produits alimenatires locaux, et les résultats laissent supposer que de telles activités entra06nent une géographie complexe Produits alimentaires locaux, Production, Marketing, Indice de relocalisation alimentaire, Angleterre et Pays de Galles Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. und Kneafsey M. (2006) Die Verteilung 02rtlicher Lebensmittelunternehmen in England und Wales: eine Liste des Standortwechsels von Lebensmittelquellen, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Trotz betr01chtlichen Interesses am Standortwechsel der Lebensmittelerszeugungsketten in England und Wales ist es nicht klar, ob 02rtliche Lebensmittelsysteme in manchen Gebieten besser entwickelt sind als in anderen. Es ist das Ziel dieses Aufsatzes, gegenw01rtige Gebiete 02rtlicher Lebensmittelunternehmen in England und Wales mittels eines Indexes von Standortwechseln von Nahrungsmittelquellen zu analysieren. Der Index wird mit Hilfe von Indikatoren entwickelt, die sich auf Erzeugung und Vermarktung 02rtlicher Nahrungsmittel beziehen, wobei die Ergebnisse nahelegen, da08 diese Aktivit01ten von einem komplexen geographischen Verteilungssystem begleitet werden. Einheimische Lebensmittel, Erzeugung, Vermarktung, Index des Standortwechsels der Lebensmittelquellen, England und Wales Ricketts Hein J., Ilbery B. y Kneafsey M. (2006) Distribución de la actividad local de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales: 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos, Regional Studies 40, 289–301. Pese al sumo interés mostrado en la relocalización de la cadena del abastecimiento de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales, no está claro si los sistemas locales de abastecimiento de alimentos están más desarrollados en unas áreas que en otras. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar cuáles son las áreas de abastecimiento local de alimentos en Inglaterra y Gales en función de un 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos. Este índice se basa en el uso de indicadores relacionados con la producción y el comercio de productos alimenticios locales y los resultados muestran que existe una geografía compleja asociada a tales actividades. Alimentos locales, Producción, Comercio, 01ndice de Relocalización de Alimentos, Inglaterra y Gales
Cultivating better food access? The role of farmers’ markets in the U. S. local food movement
Abstract The local food movement has grown substantially in the United States in recent years. Proponents have hailed this growth as a shift away from a conventional food system rife with inequality toward one that introduces more just outcomes for society. While the movement's development and popularity have proliferated, little research has examined nationally how successful it is at delivering on its promises. By combining the social movement and food system literatures with quantitative methodology, this article examines the accessibility of the farmers' market across the United States. Using multivariate logistic regression, the analysis focuses on several identifying characteristics of individuals within and characteristics of neighborhoods across the United States to explore what increases (or decreases) the likelihood of a farmers' market being located within their boundaries. The results suggest that several social, economic, and racial differences exist between those living in areas with farmers' markets and those in areas that do not. Additionally, the analysis found that several neighborhood characteristics significantly influence the likelihood of a farmers market being present, including a neighborhood's socioeconomic status, the quality of neighborhood infrastructure, participation rates in social support programs, and the prevalence of poverty. In addition to posing questions of accessibility for the local food movement this research contributes to our understanding of grassroots social movements by examining the avenues and potential limitations that they negotiate while ensuring their stated goals are reached.
Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience
In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of “alternative” food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as “authentic” products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that “local food” has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.
Telligman AL, Worosz MR, Bratcher CL.
A qualitative study of Southern U. S. consumers’ top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the sectors of food tourism in Finland by using Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the classification. Design/methodology/approach – Previous research on food tourism concentrates on the role of food as an attraction, as a cultural phenomenon, and as an experience. Moreover, food from productional and motivational viewpoints is reviewed briefly. The empirical data consists both of the secondary data and an interview. Findings – The findings introduce five sectors of food tourism where the needs and motivations are linked with Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Practical implications – The practical implications are that the food tourism promoters could emphasize the needs and motivations when marketing food tourism services. Originality/value – Sectors of food tourism in Finland classified by the hierarchy of needs are presented, providing practical implications for food tourism promoters and thus offering motivations for food tourism.
Van der Ploeg J D, Ye JZ, SchneiderS.
Rural development through the construction of new, nested, markets: Comparative perspectives from China, Brazil and the European Union
Purpose - The research presented here aims to gain understanding of consumers驴 perceptions of the concepts of food quality and safety, two concepts that play an important role in how consumers perceive food, and that are used in decision making. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 163 consumers) were held in four European countries (Germany, France, Italy and Spain). Consumers' own definitions of the two concepts of food quality and safety were examined, together with the perceived interrelationship between quality and safety, and whether these concepts were linked to improved food chain traceability. Findings - The results indicate that most consumers see food quality and food safety as interlinked concepts, which becomes evident in their partly overlapping definitions of the two concepts. Consumers believe both food safety and quality are important to food in general, but pay relatively more attention to food quality when purchasing a product. Traceability was linked not only to food safety, but also to food quality in the mind of the consumer. Research limitations/implications - Future research on consumer perceptions of food quality and safety will need to take account of the observation that these concepts are strongly related in consumers驴 minds, and therefore cannot be easily separated in explaining consumer choices. Originality/value - Instead of investigating consumer perceptions of food quality and safety in relation to specific products, consumer perceptions of food quality and food safety in general, and how these were related to each other, were studied. Further understanding was gained of how consumers might use these concepts in judgements about food, which, in turn may influence their purchase decisions
This paper aims at a conceptual clarification of the meanings of authenticity in tourist experiences. Three approaches are discussed, objectivism, constructivism, and postmodernism, and the limits of object-related authenticity are also exposed. It is suggested that existential authenticity is an alternative source in tourism, regardless of whether the toured objects are authentic. This concept is further classified into two different dimensions: intra-personal and inter-personal. This demonstrates that existential authenticity can explain a greater variety of tourist experiences, and hence helps enhance the explanatory power of the authenticity-seeking model in tourism.
Watts D CH, IlberyB, MayeD.
Making reconnections in agro-food geography: Alternative systems of food provision
This paper examines embeddedness and the turn to quality in agro-food research. It suggests that the notion of embeddedness requires critical scrutiny and that the implications of the turn to quality for the geography of agriculture may not be as radical as some have suggested. The relationship between quality and local embeddedness is explored in some detail drawing on empirical work on food purchases in five rural localities of England and Wales. It is suggested that the patterns of food purchasing revealed, with local food figuring more highly than organic, illustrate a defensive politics of localism rather than a strong turn to quality based around organic and ecological production. Far from heralding an alternative post-global green future, as promoted by a range of proponents of sustainable agriculture, the turn to local food may cover many different forms of agriculture, encompassing a variety of consumer motivations and giving rise to a wide range of politics.
Geographies of food: Agro-food geographies making reconnections
Commercial homes represent the commodification of a rural home that affects its authenticity. This study uses a quantitative approach to examine the interaction of commodification and perceived authenticity of commercial homes in rural areas. Both commodification and perceived authenticity are treated as multi-dimensional and measurable constructs. Three sets of hypotheses regarding their relationships are tested with a hierarchical dataset comprising 188 commercial home owners and 873 tourists in northern Zhejiang Province, China. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling indicate that commodification of place and labor negatively affects cognitive authenticity, and commodification of hosts goals negatively affects relational authenticity. In contrast, no significant effects are found on constructive authenticity. A conclusive model is then proposed, and research implications and limitations are discussed.
YounH, Kim JH.
Is unfamiliarity a double-edged sword for ethnic restaurants?
Unfamiliar aspects of ethnic foods are found to enhance both perceived authenticity and perceived risk. Whereas the former positively influences customers evaluations of foods and induces consumption behavior, the latter negatively affects customer behavior. Due to these conflicting effects, ethnic restaurateurs face a dilemma of whether to emphasize unfamiliar aspects to increase customer perception of authenticity or to eliminate them to reduce perceived risk. Thus, this study investigated (1) the effects of food information on perceived authenticity and perceived risk and (2) the comparative influences of perceived authenticity and perceived risk on customer satisfaction and purchase intention. The results revealed that unfamiliar ingredients influenced both perceived authenticity and perceived risk, whereas unfamiliar dish names only affected perceived authenticity. Additionally, the results support the notion that ethnic restaurant managers should endeavor to convey the uniqueness of their ethnic foods to maximize the effect of perceived authenticity over that of perceived risk.
This paper constructs a theoretical model including service quality, food quality, environment, food authenticity, environment authenticity, service authenticity, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intention, based on the literature review. A case of Northwest China Cuisine in Canton, Xibei Restaurant, has been studied to discuss the relationship among these dimensions. Some conclusions are drawn as follows. First, the authenticity of translocal restaurant includes food authenticity, environment authenticity and service authenticity. The translocal cultural production of food makes the locality prominent. The authenticity perceived by customers in translocal restaurant is symbolic authenticity or reconstructed authenticity. Second, environment authenticity and service authenticity are more important than food authenticity in translocal restaurant, which demonstrates that the service authenticity has significant influence on customer satisfaction. Third, service authenticity plays a key role in reconstructing authenticity of translocal cultural production in food. The customers' experience of authenticity in translocal restaurant is determined by the blend of both original and local food cultures.
全球化远非一个去地方化的过程，而是一个在全新关系体系中重新定义地方性，并生产出新的地方性的过程。全球化背景下，人和企业的频繁迁移突破了以往的既定边界，形成了越来越多的“跨地方（translocality）”。而饮食的地方性是食品之源，是基于全球化背景对“地方身份（place identity）”的最好表征。伴随人文地理的“批判”转向和“文化”转向，饮食地理（Geographies of Food ）成为文化地理学的重要议题。Progress in Human Geography杂志曾三次报道“饮食地理学”研究相关进展。Social & Cultural Geography杂志也曾专门发表“饮食新文化地理”专题文章。这些研究都充分考虑到饮食生产和消费空间中的文化问题，成为饮食地理研究的先锋。对于饮食的研究，已经吸引了包括地方营销、文化与原真性、全球化等领域研究者的关注。
There has been a dispute in academia as to whether globalization is the displacement of locality, or the process of redefinition, reproduction and highlighting of locality. Against the background of globalization, previously local food travels translocally with the frequent migration of people. Translocal restaurants strive to keep authenticity and meet the demands of non-local customers. The focus of translocal restaurants' culture production lies in how to keep authenticity, and what kind of authenticity to achieve. This study reviews the literature of locality, translocality, authenticity and symbolization. Based on a theoretically informed analysis of authenticity of restaurants' culture, this paper attempts to reveal an important process of translocal restaurants' culture production: symbolization of authenticity. In this study, authenticity refers to the characteristics of restaurants' culture perceived by customers, which is investigated from a constructive authenticity view. Symbolization is the process of transforming objects into symbols. Symbolized objects are easier to be recognized. Symbolization of authenticity is the realization process of authenticity imprinted by a number of clues, such as food, service, decoration and atmosphere. Translocal restaurants actualize culture production through the symbolization of authenticity. Meanwhile, this study demonstrates the necessity of the symbolization of authenticity and its circular process. It can provide a theoretical and practical basis for culture production of translocal restaurants, as well as to understand the diffusion, innovation, and development of food culture.