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旅游导刊  2019, Vol. 3 Issue (1): 65-74    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.85
研究论文     
进化视角下休闲的内涵及启示
马宝建()
北京林业大学园林学院旅游管理系 北京 100083
On the Connotation of Leisure and Its Implications from the Perspective of Evolutionism
Baojian MA
Department of Tourism Management, College of Landscape Architecture,Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
 全文: PDF(1318 KB)   HTML
摘要:

进化论几乎影响到了人类行为研究的方方方面,而建立在进化论基础上的进化心理学是于20世纪90年代兴起的当代西方心理学的一种新的研究取向,但目前尚未见到这两个领域的研究成果和思想对于休闲领域的研究渗透。本文从进化论和进化心理学的角度,运用历史和逻辑相结合的思想方法,首先分析了狩猎采集生活如何形成了人的形态、结构和机能(包括精神),继而指出传统农业社会的生产和生活方式相对比较适合人类在狩猎采集社会形成的人类天性,但现代工业社会(包括工业化的现代农业)的琐细分工剥夺了相当一部分人体结构和机能的使用机会,使人产生了不适感,因而积极休闲的意义就在于使这部分被荒废和闲置的肌体和机能得到创造性的使用,从而使精神也感觉愉悦舒适。在对休闲本质和内涵认识的基础上,本文最后提出了对休闲研究与实践的4个方面的启示。

关键词: 进化论进化心理学休闲本质内涵    
Abstract:

The theory of evolution influences nearly every aspect of humankind’s behavior research. Also, based on the theory of evolution, the evolutionary psychology appeared in 1990s is a new research area in modern western psychology. But by now, the two theories have no effect on the field of leisure study yet. From the perspective of evolutionism and evolutionary psychology, using historical and logical approach, the paper first sorts out how the gathering-hunting life style formed humankind’s body shape, structure, and function (including mind). Then, the paper points out that production and life styles in the traditional agricultural society, in comparison to the modern industrial society, better adapted to humankind’s nature that shaped in gathering-hunting society. The division of labor in modern industrial society (including industrialized modern agriculture) deprived quite a part of humankind’s usage of their structure and function, which led to the people’s discomfort. Therefore, the meaning of positive leisure is to make those part of deserted and unused body function be used creatively again, and make people’s mind feel happy and enjoyable. Based on this viewpoint, the paper puts forward four aspects of implications to the leisure study in the end: 1.Theoretically and logically, to unify and explain the current main theories about the leisure self-consistently; 2.The essence of leisure is to switch a person’s always engaged activities to other disparate things, namely, make his/her over-used body, function and mind rest and over-rested parts to be exercised; 3.Leisure activities should supply people some certain degree of effective physical and environmental stimulus, and simply to emphasize the comfort and convenience is not always right; 4.It is essential and urgent for researchers and policy-makers to consider how to afford people active leisure activities which are based on human being’s nature and to achieve human being’s full development and self-worth thereby.

Key words: evolutionism    evolutionary psychology    leisure    essence    connotation
收稿日期: 2018-05-29 出版日期: 2019-03-04
PACS:  F59  
作者简介:

[作者简介] 马宝建(1968— ),男,吉林白山人,博士,副教授,研究方向:旅游基础理论与旅游人类学、国家公园与保护地的保护与游憩利用、生态旅游与环境教育。E-mail: mbj@pku.org.cn

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引用本文:

马宝建. 进化视角下休闲的内涵及启示[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(1): 65-74.

Baojian MA. On the Connotation of Leisure and Its Implications from the Perspective of Evolutionism. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2019, 3(1): 65-74.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.85        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V3/I1/65

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