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旅游导刊  2018, Vol. 2 Issue (6): 47-62    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.84
    
民族传统村落村民文化适应的维度研究——基于黔东南三个侗族村寨的实证研究
范莉娜()
贵州民族大学旅游与航空服务学院 贵州贵阳 550025
Dimensions of Acculturation for Native in Ethnic Traditional Villages: An Empirical Study based on Three Dong Villages in Southeast Guizhou
Lina FAN()
Department of Tourism and Air Service, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang 550025, China
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摘要:

本文以贵州省黔东南苗族侗族自治州3个侗族传统村落的526位村民为调查对象,利用SL-ASIA量表检测他们的文化适应情况。研究把村民随机分成人数大致相等的两组相对独立样本,通过探索性因子分析和验证性因子分析在SL-ASIA问项测量下发现了黔东南侗族村寨原住民的文化适应具有民族认同、社会交往交流、日常生活行为3个维度。从3个维度的均值可以初步判定尽管侗族村寨原住民在日常生活行为中受现代化节奏影响明显,但其内里的族群认同依然很强,侗语作为母语的使用场合和使用频率都很高,村民普遍人际交往圈子较窄,是典型的熟人社会。

关键词: 文化适应民族传统村落社区居民文化适应维度    
Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multidimensional acculturation in the context of the development of ethnic traditional villages. Based on acculturation theory, the study selected 526 residents who were all from the three typical villages of Dong minority in the southeast of Guizhou. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of native in villages on the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie SL-ASIA items, namely ethnic identity, social communication and conducts of daily life. This paper not only verifies the validity of the SL-AISA scale in Chinese context, but also finds that although the SL-AISA scale is a single linear model, it is indeed multidimensional. As indicated by the empirical findings of this research, individuals can experience more than one culture at the same time. Residents in the dimension of social communication and ethnic identity are more manifested as Dong culture-oriented biculturalism, while residents in the dimension of daily life behavior are more manifested as true biculturalism. From the average of the three dimensions, it can be preliminarily determined that although the "Coca-Cola" phenomenon in the daily life behavior of the Dong minority is more obvious, however, the ethnic identity is still very strong. The percentage of use of the Dong language as a mother tongue is very high. The villagers have a narrow circle of interpersonal relationships and are deeply embedded in the small groups of the villagers' society. It is a typical society of acquaintances. Ethnic traditional village managers should know the acculturation status of local residents and on this basis help residents adapt to cultural changes and motivate their supportive behaviour for development, thus exploring a way for numerous ethnic villages to effectively improve the life quality and solve the livelihood issues of local residents, meanwhile to truly safeguard the ethnic dignity of individuals and protect unique cultural heritages.

Key words: acculturation    ethnic traditional villages    community residents    dimensions of acculturation
收稿日期: 2018-06-04 出版日期: 2018-12-29
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 本研究受国家民委民族研究项目基金“民族地区旅游精准扶贫与传统村落内生性参与能力培育研究”(项目编号:2018-GMH-005)、贵州省社科基金“文化适应与贵州民族旅游村寨‘美好生活需要’满足路径研究”(项目编号:18GZYB56)资助
作者简介:

[作者简介] 范莉娜(1979— ),女,上海人,博士,贵州民族大学旅游与航空服务学院副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向:民族旅游与旅游扶贫。E-mail:flili79@sina.com

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引用本文:

范莉娜. 民族传统村落村民文化适应的维度研究——基于黔东南三个侗族村寨的实证研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2018, 2(6): 47-62.

Lina FAN. Dimensions of Acculturation for Native in Ethnic Traditional Villages: An Empirical Study based on Three Dong Villages in Southeast Guizhou. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2018, 2(6): 47-62.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.84        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2018/V2/I6/47

调查项目 类别 样本数 比例(%) 调查项目 类别 样本数 比例(%)
性别 297 56.5 家庭年收入
(元)

10 000及以下 290 55.1
229 43.5 10 001~40 000 168 31.9
年龄



18岁及以下 91 17.3 40 001~70 000 47 8.9
19~30岁 181 34.4 70 001~100 000 12 2.3
31~40岁 88 16.7 100 000以上 9 1.8
41~50岁 83 15.8 样本 样本一 263 50
51~60岁 36 6.8 样本二 263 50
61岁及以上 47 9.0
受教育程度

小学及以下 200 38.1 居住地 黎平肇兴侗寨 221 42.1
初中 205 38.9 黎平黄岗侗寨 156 29.8
高中(含中专、中技) 85 16.2 从江小黄侗寨 149 28.1
大学(含大专)及以上 36 6.8
表1  样本人口统计学特征(n=526)
问项
编码
系数
问项描述 因子1 因子2 因子3 M SD h2 Cronbach’α
系数
ACC2 相信并认可的价值观 —0.012 —0.076 0.796 1.67 0.761 0.640 0.701
ACC1 对自己身份的认定 —0.059 0.091 0.721 1.48 0.730 0.531
ACC3 民族自豪感 —0.042 0.069 0.717 1.73 0.819 0.520
ACC4 对文化的熟悉 —0.129 0.247 0.443 2.31 0.891 0.256
ACC6 朋友族群偏好 0.809 0.048 0.015 1.54 0.872 0.656 0.746
ACC8 在家时使用的语言 0.732 —0.149 0.021 1.27 0.547 0.559
ACC10 更偏好说的语言 0.662 0.389 —0.132 1.93 0.826 0.607
ACC7 语言的熟悉程度 0.611 0.308 —0.240 2.07 0.656 0.525
ACC15 现在的朋友族群 0.600 0.048 —0.076 1.46 0.615 0.368
ACC9 思考时使用的语言 0.582 0.306 —0.153 1.89 0.931 0.245
ACC5 庆祝的节日 0.498 0.275 0.035 1.84 0.796 0.368
ACC14 服饰偏好 —0.076 0.769 0.080 3.12 1.040 0.603 0.735
ACC12 食物偏好 0.111 0.682 0.062 2.46 0.944 0.482
ACC11 音乐偏好 0.309 0.659 0.073 2.42 1.011 0.534
ACC13 看电视语言偏好 0.036 0.655 0.085 3.54 1.072 0.437
总方差解释比例(%) 51.830%
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin(KMO)样本充分性检测*=0.758;Barlett’s球体检验的统计值=0.000
表2  民族传统村落村民文化适应探索性因子分析结果(n=263)
x s 民族认同 社会交往交流 日常生活行为 Cronbach’α系数
民族认同 1.63 0.590 1.00 0.701
社会交往交流 1.65 0.503 0.152* 1.00 0.746
日常生活行为 2.88 0.730 0.133* 0.287** 1.00 0.735
表3  样本1中SL-ASIA量表维度的描述性统计和相关关系分析(n=263)
模型 χ2 χ2/df RMSEA CFI NFI TLI
单因子模型 363.577 5.59 0.132 0.557 0.565 0.468
模型 χ2 χ2/df RMSEA CFI NFI TLI
相关三因子模型 111.169 1.793 0.055 0.927 0.929 0.908
表4  样本2中民族传统村落村民文化适应模型整体拟合指数结果(n=263)
图1  文化适应模型的潜在结构
变量 平均值 标准差 1 2 3
1 民族认同 1.73 0.640 0.67
变量 平均值 标准差 1 2 3
2 社会交往交流 1.77 0.540 0.122* 0.65
3 日常生活行为 2.98 0.768 0. 191* 0.324** 0.62
表5  模型潜变量区分效度检验(n=263)
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