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旅游导刊  2017, Vol. 1 Issue (1): 80-105    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.7
    
国内外饭店业员工工作满意度测量方法与工具述评——基于国内外2000—2012年实证研究的分析
李秋云1, 徐虹1, 吕兴洋2
1.南开大学旅游与服务学院 天津 300071
2.西南财经大学工商管理学院 四川成都 611130
Statement and Review of Job Satisfaction Measuring Method and Instrument in Hotel Industry at Home and Abroad: Based on the Empirical Study in 2000—2012
Qiuyun LI1, Hong XU1, Xingyang LYU2
1.College of Tourism and Service Management, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
2.School of Business Administration, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 611130, China
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摘要:

鉴于饭店业员工工作满意度测量对理论上探讨其前因后果变量和实践中寻找提高员工满意度举措具有重要价值,本文首先对一般性工作满意度的概念和测量进行系统回顾,在此基础上对国内外2000—2012年发表的有关饭店业员工工作满意度定量测量的54篇文献从测量方法、测量工具等角度进行了较为详细的梳理;其次,从测量方法的选择和测量工具问项的设计两个方面对国内外该领域的研究进展进行反思;最后,结合目前该议题的研究局限从开发饭店业专门测量工具、建构量表心理维度、测量量表信度和效度及研究中西量表跨文化适用性问题四大研究方向进行展望,以期为国内外相关研究提供参考和启示。

关键词: 工作满意度饭店测量方法    
Abstract:

There has been a rapid growth of empirical research on job satisfaction in the hotel industry since 2000. However, there is little specialized research on how to measure it and few scholars review and rethink measurement methods in existing empirical studies. Considering that job satisfaction measurement in hotel industry has an important value on exploring its antecedent and outcome variables theoretically, and searching for initiatives to improve employee job satisfaction empirically, the study reviewed the concept and measurement of general job satisfaction at first. Currently, job satisfaction is defined from attitude and emotion aspects, and there are two main measuring methods including Single Global Rating and Summated Scale. Then the authors made a relatively detailed analysis and introspection of 30 foreign and 24 domestic quantitative studies about job satisfaction measurement in hotel industry published in 2000~2012 regarding measuring methods, measuring instruments, the question designs of instruments etc. Most domestic scholars tended to adopt the method of Summated Scale and develop the scale independently. Frequency of the two methods used by foreign scholars was almost the same, which means that it is still very controversial when choosing measurement method. Either way is not perfect. Although Summated Scale is facing more and more controversy and issues need to be addressed urgently, more and more scholars begin to use the two methods together in order to measure job satisfaction more accurately and then understand the key dimensions of it. However, this is just a temporary expedient and scholars still need to explore more accurate measurement methods. Finally, the authors made a brief analysis of the limitation of these papers and looked into the four possible development orientations in future: specialized measuring instrument of hotel industry development, psychological dimension construction, reliability and validity measurement, and cross-cultural measuring applicability. The study might provide references and enlightenment for relevant studies in the area of job satisfaction measurement in hotel industry.

Key words: job satisfaction    hotel industry    measuring methods
收稿日期: 2015-11-01 出版日期: 2017-01-15
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 天津市哲学社会科学研究基金项目(TJGL15-001);国家旅游局2015年度“研究型英才培养项目”(12);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金“品牌劫持:旅游目的地品牌形象演化机制及影响研究”(15YJC630086);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(11YJA630163,2011—2014)
作者简介:

[作者简介] 李秋云(1990— ),女,山东临清人,南开大学旅游与服务学院博士研究生,研 究方向:旅游与休闲研究。徐 虹(1963— ),女,天津人,南开大学旅游与服务学院副院长,教授,博士生导师, 研究方向:旅游产业经济理论与实践、旅游竞争力管理、服务管理。吕兴洋(1985— ),男,辽宁沈阳人,博士,西南财经大学工商管理学院讲师,研究方向:旅游市场营销。

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引用本文:

李秋云, 徐虹, 吕兴洋. 国内外饭店业员工工作满意度测量方法与工具述评——基于国内外2000—2012年实证研究的分析[J]. 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(1): 80-105.

Qiuyun LI, Hong XU, Xingyang LYU. Statement and Review of Job Satisfaction Measuring Method and Instrument in Hotel Industry at Home and Abroad: Based on the Empirical Study in 2000—2012. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2017, 1(1): 80-105.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.7        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2017/V1/I1/80

测量方法 来源 测量工具
单一整体评估法测量工具 Brayfield、Rothe(1951) 工作满意度指数量表(OJS)
Scarpello、Campbell (1983) 单一整体工作满意度量表(SGJS)
Kunlin(1955) 面孔量表(Face Scale)
Ironson(1989 ) 工作整体满意度调查表(JIG)
Cammann、Fichman等(1979) 密歇根组织评估问卷工作满意度分量表(MOAQ-JSS)
Hackman、Oldham(1975) 工作诊断调查表(JDS)
Johnson(1955) 工作满意度量表(JSScale)
工作要素总和评分法测量
工具
Weiss、Dawis等(1967) 明尼苏达满意度调查量表(MSQ)短表及
长表
Smith、Kendall等(1969) 工作说明量表(JDI)
Spector(1985) 工作满意度调查量表(JSSurvey)
Hackman、Lawler(1975) 工作满足量表(JSI)
Chicago:Science Research Association(1973) SRA态度量表(SRA Attitude Survey)
Arnold、Feldman(1985) 洛克、阿莫德和菲德曼量表
LaLopa(1997) 度假饭店工作满意度量表(RSS)
Testa、Williams、Pietrzak (1988) 邮轮工作满意度问卷(CLJSQ)
表1  工作满意度测量方法与工具汇总
研究来源 测量 国家 测量工具 测量方式 主要研究目的
Salazar、Hubbard等(2002) 美国 改编自某个饭店公司员工满意度调查问卷:2 题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 揭示心理控制源与饭店管理层工作满意度的关系[43]
Tepeci、Bartlett(2002) 缺失 MOAQ-JSS:3题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨组织文化、个体价值观及二者契合程度对员工工作满意度的影响[44]
Karatepe、Avci等(2003) 土耳其 SGJS:1题项 5分量表:从1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 探讨工作本身、管理、报酬、有形展示对一线员工工作满意度的影响[45]
Namasivayam、 Mount(2004) 美国 SGJS:1题项* 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨工作—家庭冲突和家庭—工作冲突与饭店员工工作满意度之间的关系[46]
Chiang、Back 等(2005) 美国 应用Susskind、Borchgrevink(2000)量表(改编自JDS:一般满意度分量表):3题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨工作满意度与组织培训、员工留职意向的关系[47]
Namasivayam、 Zhao(2007) 印度 结合SGJS:1题项* 和MOAQ-JSS:3题项 7分量表,其中SGJS是从1=非常不满意到7=非常满意,MOAQ-JSS是从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨组织承诺在饭店业员工工作—家庭冲突与工作满意度之间关系的调节
效应[48]
Øgaard、Marnburg等 (2008) 挪威 应用 Harris、Mossholder(1996)量表(改编自MOAQ-JSS):2题项 11分量表:从–5=非常糟糕的表述到5=非常好的表述 探讨组织形式(有机、机械)对员工承诺、工作满意度、工作绩效的影响[49]
Kuruüzüm、Çetin等(2009) 土耳其 改编自Lytle (1994)量表:5题项 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨饭店员工组织承诺、工作投入与工作满意度的关系[50]
Gazzoli、Hancer等(2010) 美国 SGJS:1题项 5分量表:从1=从非常不满意到5=非常满意 探讨饭店员工授权、工作满意度对顾客服务质量感知的影响与作用[51]
Kim,Jogaratnam (2010) 美国 改编自Lyons(1971)量表:2题项 5分量表:从1=很少到5=非常 探究个人和组织因素对饭店员工工作满意度与留职意向的影响[52]
ChooiHwa、Supinah等 (2010) 马来西亚 MOAQ-JSS:3题项 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探究情绪劳动对饭店员工工作满意度和情感耗竭的影响[53]
Dimitriou、Shane (2011) 美国 使用Agho等(1992)量表(改变自OJS):6题项 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨企业伦理对饭店员工满意度、组织承诺的影响[54]
Back、Lee等(2011) 韩国 使用Arnett、Laverie等(2002)量表:3题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨工作满意度与其前因变量(内部服务质量、自我效能)及后果变量(自尊、组织承诺)之间的关系[55]
Ozturk、Hancer(2011) 土耳其 SGJS:1题项*及使用Wright、Cropanzano(1998)量表:5题项 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨社会人口统计变量对于饭店管理层工作满意度的影响和各工作构面满意度与整体满意度的关系[56]
Jang、George (2012) 美国 改编自JIG:8题项 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨多重行为对饭店一线员工工作满意度及离职意向的影响[57]
Lee、Ok (2012) 美国 MOAQ-JSS:3题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨情绪智力、情绪劳动对降低饭店管理层职业倦怠、增强工作满意度的
作用[58]
表2  国外饭店员工工作满意度单一整体评估法测量研究汇总
研究来源 测量
国家
测量工具 测量方式 主要研究目的
Mount、Bartlett(2002) 美国 参考JDI、MSQ、CSQ开发饭店业工作满意度因素模型问卷:32题项(团队氛围、组织氛围等9维度)及SGJS:1题项* 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨饭店业员工工作满意度的维度并比较单一整体评估法与工作要素综合评分法[59]
Sarker、Crossman等(2003) 泰国 参考JDI及 Herzberg双因素理论:9题项(其中1—4为激励因素,5—9为保健因素) 5分量表:从1=满意度很低到5=满意
度很高
探讨年龄、服务年限对饭店员工工作满意度的影响[60]
Fulford(2005) 美国 改编自MSQ短式量表:12题项 缺失 探讨组织公平、工作满意度与组织承诺三者的关系[61]
Bai、Brewer等(2006) 美国 参考Cammann、Fichman等(1983)修订版MOAQ:6个多维构面 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨工作满意度与组织承诺、内部服务质量的关系[62]
Karatepe、Uludag 等(2006) 土耳其 应用Hartline、Ferrell(1996)的量表[参考Brown、Peterson(1993)对工作满意度前因后果变量的元分析结果而建立]:8题项(整体工作、同事、管理者、组织政策、组织支持、报酬、升迁、顾客) 5分量表:从1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 探讨部分个体特征对于员工绩效、工作满意度的影响[63]
Chow、Haddad等(2007) 美国 应用Wanous(1997)开发的量表:5题项(工作本身、报酬、升迁、管理、同事) 7分量表:从1=非常不满意到7=非常满意 探讨组织人力资源管理、员工工作满意度、士气、乐观、离职行为之间的关系[64]
Frye、Mount(2007) 美国 MSQ短表 7分量表:从1=非常不满意到7=非常满意 探讨饭店规模与服务类型对于饭店总经理工作满意度的影响[65]
Erdem、Cho(2007) 美国 开发量表:9题项(工作时间的灵活性、有形环境、休假、上班交通、直接领导、同事、福利、退休计划、工作本身) 2分量表:0=否,
1=是
探讨影响私人俱乐部管理层整体工作满意度的工作属性因素及满意对留职意向的影响[66]
Tutuncu、Kozak (2008) 土耳其 改编自JDI 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨工作满意的五大维度与整体工作满意度的关系以及整体满意对留职意向的影响[67]
Kim、Tavitiyaman 等(2009) 泰国 应用Lucas等(1990)量表(改编自JSScale): 4题项(工资、福利、自豪与成就感、工作内容) 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨管理层对服务质量的承诺(组织支持、报酬、授权、培训)对饭店员工工作满意度、服务行为的影响[68]
Kim、Murrmann 等(2009) 韩国 JSSurvey:36题项 6分量表:从1=非常不确定到6=非常确定 探讨饭店员工性别、所在组织层次对角色冲突与工作满意度关系的调节作用[69]
Nadiri、Tanova (2010) 土耳其 应用Lucas等(1990)量表(改编自JSScale): 4题项(工资、福利、自豪与成就感、工作内容) 5分量表 探究公平对饭店员工离职意向、工作满意度、组织公民行为的
影响[70]
Karatepe(2011) 尼日
利亚
使用Hartline、Ferrell(1996)量表[参考Brown、Peterson (1993)对工作满意度前因后果变量的元分析结果建立]:8题项(整体工作、同事、管理者、组织政策、组织支持、报酬、升迁、顾客) 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨工作智谋对工作—家庭冲突与工作满意度关系的调节作用[71]
Pelit、Öztürk等(2011) 土耳其 MSQ短表 5分量表:从1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 探讨授权对饭店业员工工作满意度的影响[72]
表3  国外饭店工作满意度工作要素总和评分法测量研究汇总
研究来源 测量 地区 测量工具 测量方式 主要研究目的
马明,陈方英等(2005) 缺失 应用Currivan(1999)量表:4题项
(对工作的满意、愉快、热情、厌烦程度)
5分量表:从1=非常不对到5=非常对 探讨员工满意度与敬业度关系[73]
王兴琼(2008) 四川 MSQ,SGJS:1题项* 5分量表 探究酒店实习生工作满意度及其影响因素[74]
辜应康,杨杰等(2011) 上海 MSQ及JDI,总体满 意度 5分量表:从1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 探讨饭店员工满意度与离职意向影响因素[75]
Yang(2010) 台湾 改编自Autry and Daugherty(2003)
(其参考了OJS):4 题项
7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨饭店员工满意度的前因与后果变量[76]
Lam, Zhang等(2011) 香港 JDI,JIG 是、不确定、否3选项 探讨人口统计变量对饭店员工工作满意的影响及工作维度的重要性[77]
表4  国内饭店工作满意度单一整体评估法测量研究汇总
研究来源 测量
地区
测量工具 测量方式 主要研究目的
王华、黄燕玲(2004) 广西 参考盖洛普咨询公司的测量问卷中对员工工作满意度归因的问题:12题项 缺失 探讨桂林市星级酒店员工各层面工作满意度及相关因素关系[78]
马明(2005) 缺失 改编自JDI:5题项 缺失 探讨饭店员工满意度与努力度的关系[79]
王玉梅、丛庆(2007) 四川 参考MSQ短表测量内在及外在满意度:8题项。总体满意度参考张治灿(1997):3题项 5分量表:1=非常不符合到5=非常符合 探讨心理契约如何通过工作满意度、组织承诺(中间变量)影响饭店知识型员工离职 意图 [80]
戴斌、常俊娜等(2007) 北京等地 开发量表:28题项(培训与发展、管理层、表现、沟通、薪酬、对客服务、工作环境) 5分量表:1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 调查豪华饭店员工满意度现状,分析部分人口统计变量对其影响[81]
王淑芳、金媛媛(2008) 北京等地 改编自JDI:5维度(工作本身、工作环境、薪酬、管理者和同事) 缺失 探寻饭店非正式员工工作满意度的影响因子以及各因子的影响程度,探究工作压力、工作态度和工作单位认可与工作满意度的关系[82]
王蕴(2009) 缺失 开发量表:5维度(总体工作、管理人员、用人制度、薪酬、留职意向) 4分量表:1=非常不满意到4=很满意 探讨人口统计变量对饭店员工工作满意度的影响并提出管理举措[83]
凌茜、汪纯孝(2009) 江苏等地 JDI 缺失 探究饭店各级管理人员的公仆型领导风格对员工工作满意度与服务质量关系的调节作用[84]
杨积芳、陆林(2009) 浙江 开发量表:28题项(环境、工作本身、薪酬福利、职业发展、人际关系、信息沟通、考核培训、管理水平、员工忠诚度) 5分量表 建立饭店员工工作满意度测评体系并测量以比较饭店软实力,并探讨部分人口统计学变量对员工工作满意度的影响[85]
陈鹏、杨竹(2010) 贵州 开发量表:8题项(工资、福利、个人发展、管理的公平性、工作环境、奖惩制度、同事和人际交往) 5分量表:从1=非常不同意到5=非常同意 探讨员工工作满意度与离职意向的关系[86]
王钰(2011) 天津 开发量表:5维度(工作回报、工作背景、工作群体、企业管理、企业经营) 5分量表 探讨高星级酒店员工工作满意度和组织承诺之间的关系[87]
郭淑梅、刘兵(2011) 浙江 MSQ短表 5分量表 探讨饭店业员工工作压力与工作满意度的关系[88]
邓敏(2012) 浙江 MSQ短表 5分量表 通过调查饭店员工工作满意度现状,为管理层提供建议[89]
朱伟(2012) 河南 参考JDI:27题项 5分量表 探析影响饭店员工工作满意度的因素并提出管理建议[90]
徐秀平、史万震(2012) 江苏 开发量表:51题项(管理环境、工作本身、领导水平、绩效考核、人际关系、职业发展、培训机会、薪酬福利) 5分量表:从1=完全否定到5=完全肯定 探析委托管理模式下的国有改制饭店员工工作满意度的影响因素并提出改善建议[91]
张子昂、 刘枳杉等(2012) 江苏 开发量表:31题项(工作本身、领导、同事、薪酬、培训、个人发展、环境) 5分量表:从1=非常不满意到5=非常满意 分析饭店业员工工作满意度影响因素并据此提出人力资源管理举措[92]
王玉梅、 刘雪莲等(2012) 四川 改编自Hartline、Ferrell(1996)量表[参考Brown、Peterson (1993)对工作满意度前因后果变量的元分析结果而建立]:5题项 5分量表:从1=非常不符合到5=非常符合 探讨如何提高饭店业一线员工的服务补救绩效,其中工作满意度作为情感变量即中间变量出现[93]
Chiang、Jang(2008) 台湾 改编自JDI:3题项(工作、授权、喜欢在这家饭店工作) 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨饭店心理授权与员工工作满意度、组织承诺之间的 关系[94]
Gu、Siu(2009) 澳门 开发量表:7题项(饭店环境、报酬、组织支持、培训、工作压力、离职、跳槽) 5分量表 探讨赌场饭店员工工作满意度与工作绩效的关系[95]
Fock、Chiang等(2011) 北京等地 改编自Hartline、Ferrell(1996)量表[参考Brown、Peterson(1993)对工作满意度前因后果变量的元分析结果而建立]:6题项 7分量表:从1=非常不同意到7=非常同意 探讨集体主义对心理授权与饭店员工工作满意度关系的调节作用[96]
表5  国内饭店工作满意度工作要素总和评分法测量研究汇总
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[1] 唐健雄, 孙桥. 新常态下委托管理饭店知识转移的影响因素研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(2): 60-78.