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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (2): 1-34    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.170
专题论文:理论建构探索与展望     
基于理论应用视角的会展与节事研究述评
刘林艳(),张茵,靳杨楠
北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院 北京 100024
The Study of Conventions, Exhibitions, Festivals, and Special Events: A Theoretical Review
LIU Linyan(),ZHANG Yin,JIN Yangnan
School of Tourism Science, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
 全文: PDF(20102 KB)   HTML
摘要:

现有的会展与节事研究综述类文献主要对研究现状、进展进行探讨以及对文献进行计量分析,对会展与节事研究中的理论应用情况缺乏回顾。本文统计了2000—2019年国内外会议、展览与节事领域发表的学术研究文章所用的理论及理论来源学科,并对每篇文章的理论应用程度进行了划分,发现:节事研究是国内外会展与节事研究的焦点,主要应用社会交换理论;国内应用的理论主要来源于经济学,国外则多应用心理学理论。根据“理论可见性类型”水平的评价方法,有近一半数量的文章能够将理论应用贯穿全文并用以指导研究。

关键词: 会议、展览与节事研究理论应用综述    
Abstract:

The existing literature on the study of conventions, exhibitions, festivals, and special events has concentrated primarily on frontier issues and bibliometric analysis. Meanwhile, few studies have focused on how theories are used. This study conducted a systematic review of 333 domestic publications and 502 foreign publications from 2000 to 2019 to assess the use of theories from various disciplines, and these articles have been scrutinized for the levels of theoretical visibility. This exploratory research finds that there are many domestic and foreign publications in the field of festivals, most of which use the social exchange theory. Theories from economics are most often used in domestic studies, while foreign articles often adopt psychological theories. Based on the typology of theoretical visibility, it is found that in nearly half of the domestic and foreign publications, theories are consistently applied throughout the entire research process, which suggests that theories do provide theoretical guidance for the practice of research.

Key words: conventions, exhibitions, festivals and special events    theory-in-use    literature review
收稿日期: 2020-04-07 出版日期: 2021-05-21
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家社科基金“互联网与展览业深度融合的商业模式创新研究”(18CGL021);北京市青年拔尖人才培育项目“互联网背景下北京展览业服务创新与智慧化发展研究”(CIT&TCD201904064);北京第二外国语学院2020年研究生科研项目“线上展会模式创新与线下展会融合发展研究”(11122018002)
作者简介: 刘林艳(1985— )女,安徽淮北人,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院副教授,研究方向:服务化、商业模式、展览业转型与升级。E-mail: liulinyan@bisu.edu.cn。|张 茵(1997— )女,甘肃金昌人,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院会展管理专业硕士研究生,研究方向:会展企业管理。|靳杨楠(1996— )女,河南郑州人,北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院会展管理专业研究生,研究方向:会展企业管理。
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引用本文:

刘林艳,张茵,靳杨楠. 基于理论应用视角的会展与节事研究述评[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(2): 1-34.

LIU Linyan,ZHANG Yin,JIN Yangnan. The Study of Conventions, Exhibitions, Festivals, and Special Events: A Theoretical Review. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(2): 1-34.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.170        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I2/1

提出者 “大会展”概念范围
Fenich(2007) MEEC(Meetings,Expositions,Events,Conventions)
Getz和Page(2016) 事先经过策划的活动(planned events)分为商业活动(business events)、节日与文化活动(festival and culture events)、娱乐活动(entertainment events)、体育活动(sport events)4类
Getz和Page(2016) 活动分为文化庆典(cultural celebrations)、商业与贸易(business and trade)、艺术与娱乐(arts and entertainment)、体育与娱乐(sport and recreation)、政治与国家活动(political and state)、私人聚会(private functions)共6类
Silvers、Bowdin和O’Toole等(2005) 根据活动目的将活动分为商务及公司活动(business & corporate events),公益及筹款活动(cause-related & fundraising events),展览会、博览会及交易会(exhibitions,expositions & fairs),娱乐及休闲活动(entertainment & leisure events),节庆(festivals),政府及市政活动(government & civic events),营销活动(marketing events),会议及大会活动(meeting & convention events),社会/人生里程碑活动(social/life-cycle events),体育赛事(sports events)
表1  部分“大会展”概念范围列举
可见性类型 类型描述
等级1:似乎缺少理论
Level 1:seemingly absent
没有提及任何理论,这一类型文章的作者可能隐含了某一理论,但理论未在文中显现
等级2:含有理论
Level 2:implied
作者在某种程度上提及理论(主要在背景介绍、引言部分),但未对理论进行陈述
等级3:不充分地应用理论
Level 3:partially applied
作者提及在研究中应用某一特定理论,但未将理论与研究相联系,仅在研究目的、提出问题或数据分析中部分提及理论
等级4:回顾式应用理论
Level 4:retrospectively applied
作者在研究结束时提出理论,作为理解研究结果的方式
等级5:贯穿式应用理论
Level 5:consistently applied
作者在整个研究过程中应用理论,在全文中指导研究过程的各个阶段
表2  理论可见性类型
图1  2000年至2019年国内外会展与节事领域应用理论的文献数量趋势
年份 国内 国外
文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比 文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比
2000 0 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2001 0 0 0.00% 1 1 100.00%
2002 1 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2003 0 0 0.00% 2 0 0.00%
2004 1 0 0.00% 1 1 100.00%
2005 0 0 0.00% 3 0 0.00%
2006 3 1 33.33% 4 1 25.00%
2007 0 0 0.00% 5 1 20.00%
2008 2 1 50.00% 5 0 0.00%
2009 0 0 0.00% 6 5 83.33%
2010 1 0 0.00% 6 1 16.67%
2011 1 0 0.00% 2 0 0.00%
2012 1 0 0.00% 5 2 40.00%
2013 3 1 33.33% 1 0 0.00%
2014 1 1 100.00% 3 2 66.67%
2015 1 1 100.00% 2 2 100.00%
2016 0 0 0.00% 4 3 75.00%
2017 0 0 0.00% 7 6 85.71%
2018 0 0 0.00% 3 0 0.00%
2019 1 1 100.00% 5 0 0.00%
总计 16 6 37.50% 65 26 40.00%
表3  2000年至2019年国内外会议领域相关文献统计
年份 国内 国外
文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比 文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比
2000 0 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2001 0 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2002 0 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2003 0 0 0.00% 1 1 100.00%
2004 0 0 0.00% 1 0 0.00%
2005 2 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2006 2 0 0.00% 1 0 0.00%
2007 3 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2008 11 2 18.18% 1 0 0.00%
2009 3 1 33.33% 1 0 0.00%
2010 3 2 66.67% 1 0 0.00%
2011 3 0 0.00% 0 0 0.00%
2012 3 3 100.00% 1 1 100.00%
2013 1 0 0.00% 2 1 50.00%
2014 1 1 100.00% 3 0 0.00%
2015 4 1 25.00% 1 0 0.00%
2016 3 3 100.00% 0 0 0.00%
2017 2 2 100.00% 3 1 33.33%
2018 6 3 50.00% 7 4 57.14%
2019 5 3 60.00% 3 0 0.00%
总计 52 21 40.38% 26 8 30.77%
表4  2000年至2019年国内外展览领域相关文献统计
年份 国内 国外
文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比 文献总数 应用理论的
文献数量
占比
2000 1 1 100.00% 2 0 0.00%
2001 2 1 50.00% 2 0 0.00%
2002 1 0 0.00% 4 1 25.00%
2003 3 0 0.00% 9 4 44.44%
2004 4 0 0.00% 8 2 25.00%
2005 10 6 60.00% 11 1 9.09%
2006 3 0 0.00% 16 4 25.00%
2007 9 3 33.33% 20 8 40.00%
2008 7 4 57.14% 21 3 14.29%
2009 21 6 28.57% 17 2 11.76%
2010 10 6 60.00% 11 2 18.18%
2011 12 5 41.67% 18 4 22.22%
2012 15 9 60.00% 29 6 20.69%
2013 14 3 21.43% 38 16 42.11%
2014 5 5 100.00% 32 11 34.38%
2015 8 5 62.50% 40 14 35.00%
2016 3 2 66.67% 34 12 35.29%
2017 5 3 60.00% 36 15 41.67%
2018 6 5 83.33% 22 9 40.91%
2019 3 1 33.33% 35 14 40.00%
总计 142 65 45.77% 405 128 31.60%
表5  2000年至2019年国内外节事领域相关文献统计
图2  2000年至2019年国内会展与节事文献中所应用的理论来源学科前5位变化趋势
图3  2000年至2019年国外会展与节事文献中所应用的理论来源学科前5位变化趋势
理论 频数 定义 研究内容 示例
社会交换
理论
13 社会交换理论从经济学的投入与产出关系视角研究社会行为,将社会的稳定与变化解释为一种各方之间协商交换的过程(Khan & Hefny,2019 大型活动中居民之间或居民与游客的关系 杨兴柱、陆林,2005;罗秋菊、陈可耀,2014
居民或游客对某项大型活动的感知变化 罗秋菊,2006;许春晓、柴晓敏、付淑礼,2007;宋振春、陈方英,2008;许春晓、柴晓敏、叶莉,2009;陈方英,2010;罗秋菊,2010;戴林琳、盖世杰,2011;罗秋菊、陈可耀、黄霞,2012;林翠生、宋立中、王雅君,2014;陈晓艳、黄震方、汤傅佳等,2016;梁明珠、王靖雯,2017
产业集聚
理论
8 指同一产业在某个特定地理区域内高度集中,产业资本要素在空间范围内不断汇聚的过程(姜友雪、王树进,2019 我国会议中心城市集聚影响因素 张琰、郭英之,2008
会展业及其他相关产业的空间布局 张玲、邬永强,2010/2013;蔡礼彬、唐园园,2011;方忠权、郭思茵、王章郡,2013;朱其静、汪莹、虞虎等,2016
会展场馆空间集聚 任国岩,2014
节事旅游资源开发 潘文焰,2015
顾客感知价值理论 6 顾客感知价值的核心是顾客对感知利得与感知利失(或称感知成本)进行权衡,顾客感知价值是与产品或服务的使用紧密相关的,是在特定的使用情景下产生的(白琳,2009 社区居民感知 罗秋菊,2006;
节事活动消费者感知 张涛、贾生华,2008
节事活动中的游客感知 王朝辉、陆林、夏巧云等人,2011;马凌、保继刚,2012;陶长江、李子祎,2018
节事旅游开发 赵现红,2014
满意度
理论
满意度指一个人通过对产品或服务过程的可感知效果与期望值相比较之后所形成的愉悦或失望的感觉状态(梁燕,2007 会展企业顾客满意度 李海霞、孙厚琴,2008
展馆满意度 康媛媛、胡平,2010;吴佩、宋波,2019
大型节事活动志愿者满意度 张洁,2010
大型会议顾客满意度 余构雄,2014
展会参与者满意度 刘宇翔,2018
利益相关者理论 5 企业利益相关者指那些能影响企业目标的实现或被企业目标的实现影响的个人或群体(李善民、毛雅娟、赵晶晶,2008 节庆节目编排质量 颜麒、张邱汉琴、杨韫,2011
展馆“搭便车”现象 罗秋菊、靳文敏,2012
重大事件对城市空间结构的影响 王春雷,2012
节庆活动规划和管理 王春雷,2013
城市会议与旅游局官方网站的内容策划 王春雷、吴佩、蔡萌,2015
乘数效应 3 乘数效应指经济活动中某一变量的增减所引起的经济总量变化的连锁反应程度(来臣军、郑现伟、王磊,2009 节庆活动策划与运作 郭胜,2005
会展经济效应 杨勇,2009
节事活动对主办城市的影响 宗刚、赵晓东,2013
品牌理论 “品牌”是一个营销名词,指人们对一个企业及其产品、服务、文化价值的评价和认知(王伟、杨婷、罗磊,2014)。品牌理论包括古典品牌理论阶段、现代品牌理论阶段、当代品牌理论阶段3个理论发展阶段 大型活动对城市品牌影响 王伟、杨婷、罗磊,2014
展览企业部门协作 王晓敏、戴光全,2016
旅游节庆品牌认知 张娇、吴小根、钟思琪,2016
社会表征理论 社会表征理论主要从社会文化层面探讨人们对各种现实问题的社会共识,以及这种社会共识对日常行为的内在规范作用(孙九霞、刘国果,2012 居民对大型活动影响的感知 罗秋菊,2010
居民对节事活动影响的社会表征 孙九霞、刘国果,2012;林翠生、宋立中、王雅君,2014
系统论 系统指“存在于一定环境中的,由若干相互联系、相互作用的要素组成的,具有特定结构和功能的有机整体”。系统论就是研究系统运动的规律、实现既定目标的理论(庄志民、赵睿,2000 节庆旅游资源开发 庄志民、赵睿,2000
会展活动为旅游业带来的转变 刘大可,2013
特殊活动对旅游开发的作用 张伟强、翁毅,2005
消费者
行为理论
新消费者行为理论认为,任何消费活动都是商品与时间的组合。“消费者通过综合运用时间和商品来生产更基本的活动,并选择最优组合,使效用函数最大化”(左冰,2010 标志性事件与城市饭店空间布局 张玲、邬永强,2010
会展旅游游客转化机制 向婧、彭蝶飞、伍海琳,2011
重大事件网络演绎中游客感知及态度 王朝辉、陆林、夏巧云等,2012
表6  2000年至2019年国内文章中应用次数前列的理论
理论 频数 定义 研究内容 示例
social exchange theory
(SET,社会交换理论)
24 社会交换理论从经济学的投入与产出关系视角研究社会行为,将社会的稳定与变化解释为一种各方之间协商交换的过程(Khan & Hefny,2019 大型活动志愿者的期望、满意度和行为意图 Love,Sherman & Olding,2012;Lovegrove & Fairley,2018;Hallmann & Zehrer,2019
当地居民感知收益成本和态度 Deccio & Baloglu,2002;Kim,Gursoy & Lee,2006;Cheng & Jarvis,2010;Boo,Wang & Yu,2011;Lorde,Greenidge & Devonish,2011;Chiam & Cheng,2013;Martin & Barth,2013;Prayag,Hosany & Nunkoo,et al.,2013;Weaver & Lawton,2013;van Winkle & Woosnam,2014;Song,Xing & Chathoth,2015;Li & Wan,2017;Ma & Kaplanidou,2017;Pappas,2017;Rocha,Barbanti & Chelladurai,2017
stakeholder theory
(利益相关者理论)
16 企业利益相关者指那些能影响企业目标的实现或被企业目标的实现影响的个人或群体(李善民、毛雅娟、赵晶晶,2008 识别和划分利益相关者的模型框架 Hede,2007;Tkaczynski,2013;van Niekerk & Getz,2016;Wallace & Michopoulou,2019
利益相关者之间的关系 Adongo & Kim,2018
评估框架 Lin,Jiang & Kerstetter,2018
会展业与利益相关者之间的关系 Lee,Lee & Jones,2016
利益相关者积极行为意向 Lin,2016
利益相关者的角色以及如何参与会展活动 Todd,Leask & Ensor,2017
利益相关者的贡献 Duarte Alonso,2016
不同利益相关者的成本和收益及其管理策略 Andersson & Getz,2007/2008
theory of planned behavior
(TPB,计划行为理论)
计划行为理论指出,对行为的态度、主观规范和感知的行为控制共同塑造了个体的行为意图和行为(Khan & Hefny,2019 旅游相关节事中忠诚度的形成与发展 Fragkogianni,2018
游客行为意图(态度、感知、主观规范)对其行为的影响 Cuskelly,Auld & Harrington,et al.,2004;Choo,Ahn & Petrick,2016;Chung,Lee & Kim,et al.,2018
管理者行为与风险控制 Reid & Ritchie,2011
会议参会者的参会行为 Lee & Back,2007
theory of reasoned actions
(TRA,理性行为理论)
8 理性行为理论旨在解释人类行为中态度和行为之间的关系(Khan & Hefny,2019 会议参会者的参会行为 Lee & Back,2007
环境友好感知对节庆旅游游客决策过程的影响 Song,Lee & Kang,et al.,2012
节庆活动中游客的重游意愿 Kaplanidou & Gibson,2012
节事旅游游客行为意向 Lee,Mjelde & Kim,et al.,2014;Song,You & Reisinger,et al.,2014
herzberg’s two-factor theory
(双因素理论)
6 双因素理论亦称“激励—保健”理论,由美国心理学家赫茨伯格于1959年提出。他把企业中有关因素分为两种,即满意因素和不满意因素。满意因素指可以使人得到满足和激励的因素;不满意因素指容易产生意见和消极行为的因素,即保健因素。他认为这两种因素是影响员工绩效的主要因素 研究会展活动参与者的满意度及参与意愿 Lamb & Ogle,2019
self-determination theory
(自我决定理论)
5 自我决定理论关注人的行为在多大程度上是自愿的和自我决定的,认为人天生具有追求心理成长和发展的倾向,能够将外部经验与自我进行整合(李晓明、张辉,2017 不同会展活动参与者的动机特征 Aicher,Karadakis & Eddosary,2015
表7  2000年至2019年国外文章中应用次数前列的理论
含有理论 不充分地应用 回顾式应用 贯穿式应用 文献总数
会议 国内 0 2 0 4 6
国外 4 6 1 15 26
展览 国内 3 5 1 12 21
国外 0 5 0 3 8
节事 国内 15 12 6 32 65
国外 33 37 0 58 128
表8  2000年至2019年会议、展览、节事领域文献的理论可见性类型
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