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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 23-42    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.161
研究论文     
社区旅游参与视角下民族村寨旅游地居民地方感生成研究
余志远(),赵星会,梁春媚
东北财经大学旅游与酒店管理学院 辽宁大连 116025
The Formation of Residents’ Sense of Place in Ethnic Villages from the Perspective of Community Tourism Participation
YU Zhiyuan(),ZHAO Xinghui,LIANG Chunmei
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian 116025, China
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摘要:

居民地方感领域的研究在深化“人—地”关系认识、旅游目的地地方性塑造、旅游资源开发与保护以及旅游规划等方面具有特殊意义。已有研究主要探讨人口统计学特征、物理环境和社会环境等影响因素,缺乏对旅游世界中人与场的积极互动而产生的地方感等问题的讨论。本研究从社区旅游参与视角,通过田野调查的方法收集郎德上寨村民主诉的旅游参与实践,对民族旅游村寨居民地方感的生成问题进行分析。研究发现:郎德上寨村民的社区旅游参与主要表现为“合作激励型”“自我激励型”“机械被动型”和“利益激励型”4种类型;在社区旅游参与过程中,村民获得了强烈的地方感,并由自然地理和人文物理环境、社会文化特性、经济制度、乡土认同、血缘认同、文化认同、房屋归属感和生活便利性等内容体现。本研究还发现,居民地方感在不同的社区旅游参与形态中表现出差异性;社区旅游参与和地方感之间是双向、交互式的影响关系,其中,旅游效益感知因素在二者的关系中起着重要的中介作用。

关键词: 社区旅游参与居民地方感旅游效益感知郎德上寨    
Abstract:

The regional research on residents’ sense of place has special significance in terms of deepening the understanding of “people-place” relations, shaping the endemicity of tourist destinations, developing and protecting tourist resources, and planning tourism. According to the existing literature, most research, at present, discusses the influencing effects of human demography characteristics, the physical environment, and the social environment, but few scholars have focused on people’s active function. In other words, there is a lack of discussion on the problem of sense of place generated by the dynamic interaction between people and field in the tourism world. Thus, based on the perspective of community tourism participation, this research collects the tourism participation practices claimed by the villagers of Langde Village by means of fieldwork and analyzes the problem generated by residents’ sense of place in ethnic tourism villages. The research finds that the community tourism participation of the Langde Village villagers is represented primarily as “cooperative incentive type,” “self-mobilization type,” “mechanical passive type,” and “interest incentive type.” During the process of community tourism participation, villagers acquire a strong sense of place, which is represented entirely by the content structures of physical geography and humanistic physical environment, social and cultural characteristics, economic system, local identity, consanguinity identity, cultural identity, sense of house belonging, and convenience of life. The research also shows that we should not simply deem a positive relationship between community tourism participation and residents’ sense of place. In fact, residents’ sense of place shows a difference in the distinct forms of community tourism participation. It should, instead, be observed that there is a two-way interactive influential relationship between community tourism participation and residents’ sense of place. In particular, the perceptive factors of tourism benefits play an important mediating role.

Key words: community tourism participation    residents’ sense of place;    tourism benefit perception    Langde Village
收稿日期: 2020-07-20 出版日期: 2021-03-24
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 辽宁省教育厅科学研究项目“辽宁省大学生海外志愿者公益旅游支持与保障体系研究:体验的视角”(LN2019Q58);东北财经大学科研项目“表演理论视域下民族村寨旅游剧场中的游客体验研究”(DUFE2020Y23)
通讯作者: 赵星会     E-mail: zhiyuanyu@126.com
作者简介: 余志远(1981— ),男,安徽潜山人,博士,东北财经大学旅游与酒店管理学院副教授,研究方向:旅游基础理论。E-mail: zhiyuanyu@126.com。|梁春媚(1974— ),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士,东北财经大学旅游与酒店管理学院副教授,研究方向:旅游经济与产业政策。
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引用本文:

余志远,赵星会,梁春媚. 社区旅游参与视角下民族村寨旅游地居民地方感生成研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(1): 23-42.

YU Zhiyuan,ZHAO Xinghui,LIANG Chunmei. The Formation of Residents’ Sense of Place in Ethnic Villages from the Perspective of Community Tourism Participation. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(1): 23-42.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.161        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I1/23

编号
ID
性别
Gender
年龄
Age
职业
Occupation
教育背景
Education Background
从事旅游年限
Working Experience
是否本地人
Indigenousness
PM01 40~50岁 原村支书,
现任景区保安
中专 20多年
PF01 60~70岁 手工艺品销售员 小学及以下 30多年 是(嫁过来)
PF02 40~50岁 农家乐老板 初中 10多年
PF03 20~30岁 手工艺品销售员 初中 2年 是(嫁过来)
PM02 20~30岁 景区保安 中专 1年
PF04 60~70岁 手工艺品销售员,
家中有农家乐
小学及以下 8年
PF05 30~40岁 服装店老板 高中 2年多 是(嫁过来)
PF06 20~30岁 郎德文旅职员 大学本科 2年
PF07 70~80岁 手工艺品销售员 小学及以下 10多年 是(嫁过来)
PF08 30~40岁 银店老板 小学及以下 2年多 否(在亲戚家开店)
PF09 30~40岁 农家乐老板,
手工艺品销售员
初中 3年 是(嫁过来)
PM03 40~50岁 农家乐老板 初中 10多年
PF10 30~40岁 郎德文旅职员 大专 2年多 是(嫁过来)
PF11 50~60岁 凯里市文旅局职员 大学本科 30多年 是(嫁出去)
PF12 30~40岁 手工艺品销售员 初中 10多年 是(嫁过来)
PF13 30~40岁 手工艺品销售员 中专 6年 是(嫁过来)
PM04 40~50岁 苗族歌舞表演者 小学及以下 10多年
PM05 40~50岁 农家乐老板 小学及以下 10多年
PM06 20~30岁 郎德文旅职员 大专 3年
PF14 20~30岁 学生,
手工艺品销售员
大专 2年多
PM07 30~40岁 农家乐老板,
手工艺品销售员
初中 3年
表1  访谈对象的基本信息
Ⅲ级编码后的符码
Codes After Tertiary Level Coding
Ⅱ级编码后的符码
Codes After Secondary Level Coding
Ⅰ级编码(自由编码)
后的符码
Codes After First Level Coding
原始资料
Primary Sources
地方认同 乡土认同 一直在这里生活;从小长大对这个地方感情深厚;朗德是家;根在这里;想留在村寨;依恋这片土地;喜欢寨子 “现在呢,对村子的感觉比以前好多了,那个以前的是不好。以前就是还干活嘛。现在我们也干活,干农活,就是插秧什么的,累了就去休息了。有游客的时候就接客,没有就休息,是这样。以前就是天天去山上做农活,就是去摘那个苞谷啊,还去锄那个草啊、打虫啊,那都天天去啊。”(PF02)
血缘认同 照顾孩子;父母在,不离家;依恋亲人;村民都是一家人 “和寨子的其他人的话就感觉像兄弟姐妹的那样,也没什么,大家都太亲近了。”(PF-14)
文化认同 源远流长的酒文化;苗族服饰;仪式很热闹、隆重;有味道的吊脚楼;特色美食;吸引游客的歌舞表演 “吸引游客的就是我们这个民族跳舞的。这里开发还没那么好,但最主要的是空气还可以,而且东西都保存得比较好,像我们这个芦笙舞,它都是一直流传下来,不像外面那些经过加工的,它就没有苗族的味道,反正它就是改编一下来跳,跳完了,它就结束了。而这里,我们就是从以前一直到现在,一直都是这么跳的,呵呵。”(PF-08)
表2  本研究编码过程示例
图1  郎德上寨社区旅游参与类型
图2  民族村寨旅游地居民地方感生成的因果关系
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