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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 1-22    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.160
专题论文:理论建构探索与展望     
旅游目的地地格的理论源流、本质与测度指标
邹统钎1,2(),赵英英3,常梦倩1,2,韩全1,2
1.北京第二外国语学院中国文化和旅游产业研究院 北京 100024
2.北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院 北京 100024
3.河北民族师范学院 河北承德 067000
The Origins, Nature, and Measurements of Destination Placeality
ZOU Tongqian1,2(),ZHAO Yingying3,CHANG Mengqian1,2,HAN Quan1,2
1. China Academy of Culture and Tourism, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
2. School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
3. Hebei Normal University for Nationalities, Chengde 067000, China
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摘要:

全球化背景下,在旅游目的地开发与营销过程中忽视了地方的本质特征,旅游目的地竞争走向“无地方性”与“无个性”的地方趋同陷阱。地格理论融合地理学的地方性理论、营销学的品牌个性理论、旅游学的推拉理论以及管理学的资源基础论,提出旅游目的地开发与营销成功的关键是以地格为依托,即关注目的地长期积累形成的生活方式的本质特征,避免地方趋同。本文指出具有代表力、吸引力与竞争力的旅游地格是旅游目的地的品牌基因,还从旅游目的地政府、游客和居民视角出发,运用定性与定量相结合的方法,创建了由自然环境、人文环境与群体性格组成的地格因子体系。

关键词: 目的地地格理论源流本质因子体系    
Abstract:

In the context of globalization, the essential nature of places has been neglected in the development and marketing of tourism destinations. The competition of tourism destinations has moved towards a trap at the convergence of “no placeness” and “no personality” (or no distinctive features). Incorporating the placeness theory of geography, the brand personality theory of marketing, the push-pull theory of tourism, and the resource-based theory of management, the theory of destination placeality proposes that the key to the successful development and marketing of a tourism destination relies on placeality: that is, focusing on the essential nature of the destination lifestyle formed through a long-term accumulation, and distinguishing (or differentiating) itself from other tourism destinations. It further argues that representative, attractive, and competitive destination placeality is the brand DNA of tourism destinations. From the perspective of the government, tourists, and residents of tourism destinations, the paper uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to create an index system of destination placeality composed of the natural environment, humanistic environment, and group characteristics.

Key words: destination placeality    origin    nature    index system
收稿日期: 2020-06-20 出版日期: 2021-03-24
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“基于地格视角的旅游目的地品牌基因选择研究”(71673015)
通讯作者: 韩全     E-mail: ztq64@126.com
作者简介: 邹统钎(1964— ),男,江西吉安人,博士,北京第二外国语学院中国文化和旅游产业研究院教授,研究方向:旅游目的地管理与旅游规划、文化遗产管理、文化旅游发展政策。E-mail: ztq64@126.com。|赵英英(1991— ),女,河北保定人,河北民族师范学院讲师,研究方向:旅游目的地管理与旅游规划。|常梦倩(1997— ),女,山东滨州人,北京第二外国语学院硕士生,研究方向:旅游目的地管理与旅游规划。
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引用本文:

邹统钎,赵英英,常梦倩,韩全. 旅游目的地地格的理论源流、本质与测度指标[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(1): 1-22.

ZOU Tongqian,ZHAO Yingying,CHANG Mengqian,HAN Quan. The Origins, Nature, and Measurements of Destination Placeality. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(1): 1-22.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.160        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I1/1

图1  旅游目的地品牌基因选择的三力(RAC)模型
国家、城市或地区
Country/City/ Region
目的地旅游品牌口号
Tourism Destination Brand Slogan
Amsterdam
阿姆斯特丹
Capital of Inspiration
灵感之都
Australia
澳大利亚
A Different Light
绝美风光
Copenhagen
哥本哈根
Wonderful Copenhagen
精彩的哥本哈根
Costa Rica
哥斯达黎加
No Artificial Ingredients
纯天然
Cyprus
塞浦路斯
The Island for All Seasons
四季皆宜之岛
Hangzhou
杭州
Oriental Capital of Leisure,City of Quality Life
东方休闲之都,生活质量之城
India
印度
Incredible India
不可思议的印度
Malaysia
马来西亚
Truly Asia!
真正的亚洲!
New Zealand
新西兰
100% Pure New Zealand
百分之百纯净新西兰
Paris
巴黎
Paris is for Lovers
巴黎是情人天堂
Peru
秘鲁
Land of the Incas
印加人的家园
Scotland
苏格兰
Home of Golf
高尔夫之乡
Shandong
山东
Friendly Shandong
好客山东
Singapore
新加坡
Live It up in Singapore
尽情享受在新加坡
Spain
西班牙
Everything under the Sun
阳光国度
Switzerland
瑞士
Get Natural
自然本色
Thailand
泰国
Land of Smiles
微笑王国
表1  基于地格的旅游目的地品牌
分类 类别 人数
性别 36
38
职业 旅游相关从业者 20
非旅游相关从业者 54
常住地 喀什地区 39
北京 5
上海 3
香港 3
台湾 3
丽江 3
大理 3
乌镇 3
厦门 3
三亚 3
西藏自治区 3
敦煌 3
表2  受访者的基本信息
编码
Coding
频数
Frequency
编码
Coding
频数
Frequency
历史古迹 51 历史名人 18
地质地貌 48 传统产业 4
生活氛围 47 发展水平 3
地方文化 36 生活节奏 3
地方特产 35 群体性格 3
地理位置 23 休闲方式 2
气候环境 19
表3  中国285座优秀旅游城市宣传口号语义编码
主范畴
Main Category
范畴
Category
初始编码
Initial Coding
资料来源
Source
地理位置 可进入性 通达性、便利性 宣传片、游记、访谈
特殊性 之最、边境 宣传片、游记
感知距离 近—远 游记、访谈
地质地貌 独特地貌 沿海、高原、荒漠 宣传片、游记、访谈
生物资源 植物 茂密—稀疏 访谈
动物 丰富—稀少 访谈
气候环境 温度 冷—暖 宣传片、游记、访谈
湿度 干燥—湿润 宣传片、游记、访谈
光照 充足—缺乏 宣传片、游记、访谈
空气质量 好—差 游记、访谈
整体感知 极端—适宜 游记
生活氛围 发展水平 传统落后—现代繁华 宣传片、游记、访谈
对外开放水平 开放—闭塞 宣传片、游记、访谈
生活质量 高—低 宣传片、游记、访谈
生活压力 大—小 游记、访谈
生活成本 高—低 游记、访谈
卫生水平 干净—脏乱 游记
安全状况 安全—不安全 游记
整体氛围 热闹—安静 游记
物质文化 传统手工艺 有特色—无特色 宣传片、游记、访谈
建筑 宣传片、游记、访谈
饮食 宣传片、游记、访谈
服饰 游记、访谈
精神文化 民族文化 鲜明—不鲜明 宣传片、游记、访谈
宗教文化 鲜明—不鲜明 宣传片、游记、访谈
民俗文化 丰富—单一 宣传片、游记、访谈
文化氛围 文化多样性 多元—单一 宣传片、游记、访谈
文化包容度 保守—开放 游记
待己性格 本能主导 知足、乐观 宣传片、游记、访谈
思考主导 严谨、深思熟虑、规矩 宣传片、游记、访谈
情感主导 家庭观念、邻里关系、
热爱家乡、人情味
访谈
待人性格 外向性 热情好客、粗犷豪爽 宣传片、游记、访谈
和悦型 淳朴善良、活泼开朗、 宣传片、游记、访谈
情绪型 焦虑、抑郁、敏感 访谈
待事性格 创新型 工作—生活 访谈
实干型 访谈
放任型 访谈
表4  旅游目的地地格因子编码示例
二级因子 保留的要素 删除的要素 相关系数 Sig.
生活氛围 C11聚落类型 C12发展水平 0.789 0.000
C13生活压力 0.754 0.000
C15人口密度 0.726 0.000
表5  相关性系数大于0.7的因子筛选结果
图2  旅游目的地地格因子体系
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