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旅游导刊  2020, Vol. 4 Issue (5): 40-59    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.154
研究论文     
彝族火把节对社区成员族群认同的影响——基于多族群认同测量(MEIM)的运用
陶长江
四川农业大学旅游学院 四川成都 611830
Research on the Influence of the Yi Torch Festival on the Ethnic Identity of Community Members : Based on the Application of the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure
TAO Changjiang
College of Tourism, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611830, China
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摘要:

族群认同是社会学的重要研究课题,但鲜有研究关注民族节庆对社区成员族群认同的影响。研究将测量工具多族群认同测量(MEIM)引入节庆研究,运用探索性因子分析、验证性因子分析和多元方差分析,对参加凉山彝族自治州民间火把节的社区居民进行实证研究,研究表明:(1)MEIM在民族节庆研究领域存在族群认同承诺和族群认同探索两个维度,且具有测量稳定性;(2)社区节庆旅游发展程度负向影响成员族群认同承诺;(3)社区成员参与民族节庆的积极性和强度正向影响族群认同,即经常参加火把节的成员在族群认同承诺和探索方面均高于偶然参加者,参加火把节具体活动项目的社区成员在族群认同探索上明显高于观看者;(4)社区成员的性别和受教育程度显著影响族群认同,即彝族男性的族群认同承诺和探索高于女性,社区成员受教育程度对族群认同承诺的影响呈现“U”形。

关键词: 族群认同多族群认同测量彝族火把节    
Abstract:

This study explores factors influencing community members’ ethnic identity in relation to festivals and depicts the differences. The Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) in the form of a questionnaire survey is conducted on the Yi ethnic community members attending the Yi Torch Festival in Sichuan Province, China. This study employs quantitative methods, including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multivariate variance analysis. The results show that the ethnic identity of festival attendees is reflected in two dimensions: ethnic identity commitment and ethnic identity exploration. Moreover, while the level of community tourism development is negatively correlated with members’ ethnic identity commitment, there is a positive correlation between the improvement of ethnic groups and their enthusiasm for and frequency of participating in community ethnic festivals. There is no clear difference in ethnic identity commitment between the festival performers and the festival spectators. However, as active participants of the festival, performers score much higher on ethnic identity exploration than spectators. Meanwhile, frequent participants exhibit greater levels of ethnic identity commitment and exploration than occasional participants. Gender and the level of education also play a vital role in personal ethnic identity. In comparison to the Yi females, the Yi males have higher ethnic identity commitment and exploration, while the educational level also affects the degree of ethnic identity commitment in a U-shaped pattern. This study is the first study applying MEIM in festival research and demonstrates the applicability of the MEIM scale in studying ethnic festivals.

Key words: Ethnic Identity    the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure    the Yi Torch Festival
收稿日期: 2020-01-13 出版日期: 2020-11-30
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 本研究受四川省旅游业青年专家专项课题“旅游节庆对族群认同影响研究——以凉山彝族火把节为例”资助项目编号(SCTYETP2016L37)
作者简介: 陶长江(1982— ),男,重庆潼南人,四川农业大学副教授,硕士生导师,研究方向:残障旅游、节事旅游、乡村旅游。E-mail: taocj82@163.com
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引用本文:

陶长江. 彝族火把节对社区成员族群认同的影响——基于多族群认同测量(MEIM)的运用[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(5): 40-59.

TAO Changjiang. Research on the Influence of the Yi Torch Festival on the Ethnic Identity of Community Members : Based on the Application of the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2020, 4(5): 40-59.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.154        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V4/I5/40

指标 量表版本及其因子结构
Phinney(1992) Roberts,Phinney & Masse,et al.(1999) Phinney &Ong(2007)
1.我花了很多时间去了解我的族群,如历史、传统和风俗。 族群认同成就 探索 探索
2.我活跃在组织或社会团体中,这些组织或社会团体主要包括我自己族群的成员。 族群行为 探索 探索*
3.我很清楚自己的族群背景以及这对我意味着什么。 族群认同成就 确认/属性 承诺
4.我可以想到族群对我生活的很多影响。 族群认同成就 探索
5.我很高兴我是我族群中的一员。 确认与归属 确认/属性
6.我不太清楚我的族群在我生活中的作用(反向)。 族群认同成就
7.我真的没有花太多时间去了解我这个族群的文化和历史(反向)。 族群认同成就
8.我有强烈的族群归属感。 确认与归属 确认/属性 承诺
9.我很清楚我的族群成员对我意味着什么。 族群认同成就 确认/属性 承诺
10.为进一步了解我的族群背景,我经常和其他人谈论我的族群。 族群认同成就 探索 探索
11.我为我的族群和他们的成就感到骄傲。 确认与归属 确认/属性
12.我参与一些我们自己族群的文化实践活动,比如特色饮食、民族音乐或习俗等。 族群行为 探索 探索*
13.我对自己的族群有着强烈的依恋。 确认与归属 确认/属性
14.我对自己的文化或族群背景很满意。 确认与归属 确认/属性
表1  MEIM的指标和因子结构
模型结构 代表论文 维度名称 含义
单结构 Phinney,1992;Worrell,Conyers & Mpofu,et al.,2006 族群认同 “族群认同是个体自我概念的一部分,它来源于对社会群体(或群体)成员的认识,以及个体作为成员的价值和情感意义”(Tajfel,1981,引自Phinney,1992:156)
双因子结构 Roberts,Phinney & Masse,et al.,1999;Pegg & Plybon,2005;Phinney & Ong,2007;Kazarian & Boyadjian,2008;Feitosa,Lacerenza & Joseph,et al.,2017 (1)确认/
承诺
(2)探索
(1)“群体成员的意识和群体对个体的态度”(Roberts,Phinney & Masse,et al.,1999:302)
(2)“寻求与族群相关的信息和经历”(Phinney & Ong,2007:272)
三因子结构 Gaines,Bunce & Robertson,et al.,2010 (1)行为
(2)认知
(3)情感
(1)行为/探索
(2)搜索/解决族群问题
(3)确认(Gaines,Bunce & Robertson,et al.,2010
Lee & Yoo,2004 (1)认知识别
(2)情感自豪

(3)行为参与
(1)“清晰的自我理解意识和归属感”(Lee & Yoo,2004:266)
(2)“对某一族群成员的积极影响”(Lee & Yoo,2004:266)
(3)“对族群活动参与的积极性”(Lee & Yoo,2004:267)
表2  MEIM的3类结构维度
个人特征 具体选项 人数 百分比(%)
性别 女性 162 33.1
男性 328 66.9
年龄 18~24岁 171 34.9
25~34岁 134 27.3
35~44岁 101 20.6
45~64岁 69 14.1
≥65岁 15 3.1
受教育程度 未上学 114 23.3
小学 131 26.7
初中 92 18.8
高中 62 12.7
大专或大学 91 18.4
参加火把节的活动
类型
运动项目(斗牛、斗羊、赛马、摔跤) 59 5.8
歌舞(阿都高腔、朵乐荷) 22 2.2
选美 11 1.1
火把游山 130 12.7
火把狂欢(达体舞) 299 29.4
只是观看 484 47.6
其他(如在火把节现场销售小食品) 12 1.2
表3  被访者个人特征
因子和指标 探索性因子分析
方差解释百分比 特征值 因子载荷量
F1:EIC(α=0.859) 35.440 4.253
3.我很清楚自己的彝族背景以及这对我意味着什么。 0.666
5.我很高兴我是彝族的一员。 0.750
6.对彝族有很强烈的归属感。 0.713
7.我很清楚我的彝族同胞对我意味着什么(deleted)。 0.261
9.我为我们彝族和彝族的成就感到骄傲。 0.676
11.我对自己彝族有着强烈的依恋。 0.613
12.我对自己的文化或彝族背景很满意。 0.693
F2:EIE(α=0.691) 21.532 2.384
1.我花了很多时间去了解彝族,如历史、传统和风俗。 0.591
2.我活跃在组织或社会团体中,这些组织或社会团体主要包括彝族成员。 0.757
4.我可以想到族群对我生活的很多影响。 0.525
8.为进一步了解我的彝族背景,我经常和其他人谈论我们彝族。 0.680
10.我参与一些我们彝族的文化实践活动,比如特色饮食、民族音乐或习俗等。 0.776
表4  探索性因子分析
观测变量 均值
(标准差)
标准化
因子载荷
解释
能力
组成
信度
收敛
效度
EIC 0.525
EIC1我很清楚自己的彝族背景以及这对我意味着什么。 4.78(0.570) 0.660*** 0.436 0.869
EIC2我很高兴我是彝族的一员。 4.76(0.579) 0.773*** 0.598
EIC3对彝族有很强烈的归属感。 4.67(0.667) 0.725*** 0.526
EIC4我为我们彝族和彝族的成就感到骄傲。 4.75(0.589) 0.729*** 0.531
EIC5我对自己彝族有着强烈的依恋。 4.66(0.737) 0.691*** 0.477
EIC6我对自己的文化或彝族背景很满意。 4.80(0.485) 0.765*** 0.585
EIE 0.551
EIE1我花了很多时间去了解彝族,如历史、传统和风俗。 4.35(0.941) 0.690*** 0.476 0.860
EIE2我活跃在组织或社会团体中,这些组织或社会团体主要包括彝族成员。 4.17(0.974) 0.744*** 0.554
EIE3我可以想到族群对我生活的很多影响。 4.50(0.735) 0.784*** 0.615
EIE4为进一步了解我的彝族背景,我经常和其他人谈论我们彝族。 4.53(0.814) 0.729*** 0.531
EIE5我参与一些彝族的文化实践活动,比如特色饮食、民族音乐或习俗等。 4.38(0.957) 0.762*** 0.581
表5  观测变量基本统计量与验证性因子分析结果
变量 Pillai跟踪检验 F值 自由度 显著性
个人状况 社区来源 0.074 9.406 2 0.000
性别 0.020 5.047 1 0.007
受教育程度 0.045 2.208 5 0.016
参与活动 近5年均参加火把节 0.050 12.822 1 0.000
情况 参与活动类型 0.113 4.804 6 0.000
表6  多元显著效应(p<0.05)
因变量 自由度 F值 自变量 均值 95%置信区间
下限 上限
社区来源
Ι 2 19.330 布拖县(N=324) 0.179 0.074 0.284
普格县(N=155) —0.397 —0.549 —0.245
其他县(如昭觉、金阳) (N=11) 0.324 —0.248 0.895
性别
Ι 1 4.647 男性(N=328) 0.068 —0.040 0.176
女性(N=162) —0.138 —0.292 0.016
1 5.417 男性(N=328) 0.074 —0.034 0.182
女性(N=162) —0.149 —0.303 0.005
受教育程度
Ι 5 3.309 未上过学(N=114) 0.193 0.011 0.374
小学(N=131) 0.145 —0.024 0.315
初中(N=92) —0.279 —0.482 —0.077
高中(N=62) —0.161 —0.408 0.085
大专(N=37) —0.093 —0.412 0.227
大学和研究生(N=54) —0.035 —0.299 0.230
近5年参加火把节
Ι 1 4.299 是(N=334) 0.064 —0.043 0.171
否(N=156) —0.137 —0.293 0.020
1 21.016 是(N=334) 0.139 0.033 0.244
否(N=156) —0.297 —0.451 —0.143
参与活动类型
6 8.849 运动类(N=61) 0.158 —0.083 0.398
唱歌跳舞(N=20) 0.032 —0.387 0.452
选美比赛(N=3) 0.719 —0.219 1.658
火把游山(N=116) 0.244 0.070 0.418
火把狂欢(N=174) 0.120 —0.023 0.262
火把节现场售卖食品(N=8) —0.987 —1.650 —0.323
只是观看(N=107) —0.508 —0.690 —0.327
表 7  单变量显著效应(p<0.05)
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