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旅游导刊  2021, Vol. 5 Issue (1): 43-57    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.152
研究论文     
归因偏差视角下旅游行为失范成因研究
周坤1,2(),王进2
1.河北农业大学园林与旅游学院 河北保定 071000
2.重庆文理学院旅游学院 重庆 402160
A Study on the Causes of Tourism Behavior Anomie from the Perspective of Attribution Bias
ZHOU Kun1,2(),WANG Jin2
1. College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, China
2. Tourism College of Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160, China
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摘要:

游客旅游行为失范时有发生,威胁着旅游资源与环境安全。心理归因影响个体行为逻辑,归因偏差是解释心理归因的经典理论。本文引入归因偏差理论,采用实证方法探究旅游行为失范背后的归因偏差因素,为减少旅游行为失范提供心理学依据。研究发现,归因偏差能够引致旅游者心理认知偏差,后者直接引发和助推旅游行为失范。心理环境和群体心理对引致旅游者的心理认知偏差和行为失范具有显著作用,归因偏差成为旅游者弱化旅游行为失范结果的心理屏障,可激发或促进旅游行为失范的发生或持续。研究认为旅游地可从完善硬件监控、控制游客流量、强化失范行为负面教育、发挥在场监督作用等方式削弱归因偏差效应。

关键词: 旅游行为失范心理学解析归因偏差    
Abstract:

Behavior anomie occurs periodically in the process of tourism activities, bringing about potential damages to tourism resources and the environment. Attribution bias theory is one of the classical theories used to explain human behavior. Exploring the factors of attribution bias behind the anomie of tourist behavior is a significant means of preventing it from happening. Based on the theory of attribution bias, this paper chooses seven potential variables and twenty-two observed variables to construct a structural equation model from the three perspectives of observer-actor bias, basic attribution bias, and self-serving bias, and conducts empirical research by obtaining data through questionnaires. The results show that attribution bias may directly lead to tourists’ psychological cognitive bias, which, in turn, may elicit tourist behavior anomie. Psychological environment and group psychology have a direct effect on the psychological cognitive bias and behavioral anomie of tourists. The article holds that authorities of tourism destinations can reduce the psychological cognitive bias of tourists by upgrading monitoring facilities, regulating the flow of tourists, reinforcing the negative results of deviant behavior, and exercising on-site visitor supervision, so as to minimize the deviant behavior of tourists.

Key words: tourist behavior anomie    psychological analysis    attribution bias
收稿日期: 2020-04-06 出版日期: 2021-03-24
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 重庆市社科规划项目“旅游扶贫视阈下秦巴山区脱贫人口持续获益与返贫阻断研究”(2019YBGL068);河北农业大学人才引进项目“文旅融合背景下我国乡村旅游高质量发展研究”(YJ2020063)
作者简介: 周 坤(1983— ),男,河北保定人,河北农业大学讲师,博士,研究方向:旅游行为学、文化遗产与旅游开发。E-mail: zhoukun213@foxmail.com。|王进(1983— ),女,四川宜宾人,重庆文理学院副教授,博士,研究方向:乡村旅游、旅游规划与开发。
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引用本文:

周坤,王进. 归因偏差视角下旅游行为失范成因研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2021, 5(1): 43-57.

ZHOU Kun,WANG Jin. A Study on the Causes of Tourism Behavior Anomie from the Perspective of Attribution Bias. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2021, 5(1): 43-57.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.152        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2021/V5/I1/43

图1  旅游行为失范归因偏差模型
变量
Variables
克隆巴赫系数(Cronbach’s α) 组合信度系数(CR) 平均变异数抽取量(AVE)
基本归因偏差Basic Attribution Bias 0.789 0.923 0.872
自我服务偏差Self-service Bias 0.834 0.919 0.894
观察者偏差Observer Bias 0.911 0.742 0.782
群体心理Group Psychology 0.841 0.891 0.793
心理环境Psychological Environment 0.802 0.880 0.854
心理认知偏差Psychological Cognitive Bias 0.778 0.879 0.661
旅游失范行为Tourism Behavior Anomie 0.852 0.731 0.833
表1  各变量信效度分析统计表
X 2/df RMSEA RMR AGFI NNFI CFI
理想值Ideal Value ≤5 ≤0.08 ≤0.05 ≥0.9 ≥0.9 ≥0.9
运算值Operation Value 3.214 0.052 0.033 0.941 0.930 0.902
表2  模型拟合度指标表
假设
Hypothesis
路径系数
Path Coefficient
估值
Valuation
标准
误差(S.E.)
临界
比率(C.R.)
P 验证结果Validation Results
H1 心理环境→旅游行为失范 0.211 1.054 1.823 0.031 成立
H2 心理环境→旅游者心理认知偏差 0.835 1.187 0.952 *** 成立
H3 群体心理→旅游者心理认知偏差 0.736 1.329 2.368 0.029 成立
H4 观察偏差→旅游者心理认知偏差 0.524 1.633 1.251 *** 成立
H5 基本归因偏差→旅游者心理认知偏差 0.854 0.956 2.337 *** 成立
H6 自我服务偏差→旅游者心理认知偏差 0.698 1.659 1.592 *** 成立
H7 旅游者心理认知偏差→旅游行为失范 0.657 1.364 3.422 *** 成立
表3  检验假设路径系数统计
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