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旅游导刊  2020, Vol. 4 Issue (3): 43-61    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.142
    
基于扎根理论的旅游体验作用路径研究:以迪士尼主题公园为例
马天
大连民族大学经济管理学院 辽宁大连 116600
On the Function of the Tourist Experience:A Grounded Theory Exploration of Disneyland
MA Tian
School of Economics and Management, Dalian Minzu University,Dalian 116600, China
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摘要:

随着20世纪末体验经济概念的提出,体验成为继商品、服务之后重要的经济提供物。旅游体验一直是旅游研究中的重要议题,被认为是旅游的本质。以典型的享乐型旅游产品迪士尼主题公园为例,运用扎根理论研究方法,通过开放式编码、主轴式编码和选择性编码3个编码阶段,详细探讨旅游体验中的情感触点、旅游体验质量的维度以及旅游体验的作用路径。研究发现:(1)旅游体验中的情感触点主要为环境、服务接触、人际互动、活动参与、刺激寻求与挑战技能之间的关系、目标一致性;(2)旅游体验质量由吸引性、趣味性和享受性3个维度构成;(3)旅游体验的作用路径始于不同的情感触点,情感触点通过感官和意识路径作用于旅游者,由于旅游者在个性、到访次数等方面的差异,会产生不同效价和强度的情感反应以及不同的旅游体验质量评价,进而产生不同的个人结果。尤其关注旅游体验质量的前因变量和旅游体验的作用路径,进一步从理论上深化了对旅游体验的认识和理解,有助于旅游目的地管理者设计旅游产品、增进旅游者体验。

关键词: 旅游体验情感触点旅游体验质量扎根理论    
Abstract:

With the development of the concept of the experience economy at the end of the 20th century, experience has been an important economic offering after goods and services. The tourist experience has always been an important issue in tourism research and is regarded as the essence of tourism. This article takes Disneyland, a typical hedonic tourism product, as an example and uses grounded theory, such as open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, to discuss the emotional triggers in the tourist experience, various dimensions of tourist experience quality, and the functional process of the tourist experience. This paper found that: (1) the emotional triggers in the tourist experience mainly are environment, service encounter, interpersonal interaction, and activity participation; (2) the quality of the tourist experience is composed of three dimensions (attraction, fun and, enjoyment); and (3) the functional process of the tourist experience starts from different emotional triggers, which act on tourists through the sensory organs and consciousness. Because tourists differ in personality and number of visits, their emotional responses are of different valence and intensity, which leads to various individual experiences and different evaluations of the quality of the tourist experience. This paper pays particular attention to the antecedent variables of tourist experience quality and the functional process of the tourist experience. It is intended to provide better knowledge and more in-depth understanding of the tourist experience, which is conducive for tourism destination managers to design more attractive tourism products and bring about better tourist experiences.

Key words: tourist experience    emotional triggers    tourist experience quality    grounded theory
收稿日期: 2019-11-01 出版日期: 2020-07-22
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 国家社会科学基金(项目编号:19CMZ035)
作者简介: 马 天(1987— ),女,辽宁辽阳人,博士,大连民族大学经济管理学院讲师,研究方向:旅游体验。E-mail: tianma2010@qq.com
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引用本文:

马天. 基于扎根理论的旅游体验作用路径研究:以迪士尼主题公园为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2020, 4(3): 43-61.

MA Tian. On the Function of the Tourist Experience:A Grounded Theory Exploration of Disneyland. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2020, 4(3): 43-61.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.142        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2020/V4/I3/43

图1  编码典范的简化图
原始资料 开放式编码
概念化 范畴化 范畴的
性质
性质的
面向
秧爹不置信地问那个工作人员:“人们在这里排队,只是为了拍这张照片吗?”那小伙子笑了,说:“对。”(Y34—DL)
我们走进一家铺面不是很大的商店,里面迪士尼的卡通纪念品琳琅满目,小宝看了爱不释手,考虑到后面还有很多项目要游玩,因此看了之后就出来了。店家是个慈眉善目的老妇人,没想到她追赶上我们,送给小宝一张米老鼠形象的卡通贴纸,着实让人感动。(Y1—DL)
体验过飞越地平线项目出来,正好赶上泰山的演出,剧场紧邻飞越地平线项目,于是就一起看了。座位引导员的语气自始至终不太友好,略不爽。(Y46—DL)
但是香港迪士尼主题公园出彩的地方是随船的解说,非常好,解说生动搞笑。(Y46—DL)
……
a1问询 以概念a1~a8,范畴化
为A1服务接触
次数:无/少/多
质量:低/高
路径:间接/直接
a2购物
a3指引
a4讲解

……
我们先去的是ADVENTURELAND里的INDIANA JONES,里面就是这部片子里的场景,我们坐上采矿车,寻宝冒险,还是很有趣的。我们还去体验了激流勇进,我坐第一个位置,穿着防水衣还是湿了身。鬼屋稍有恐怖,但不够刺激,最好玩的是加勒比海盗,里面那些三维人物栩栩如生,非常生动地演绎了当时的场景。(Y11—DL)
我们看了《冰雪奇缘》演出。演员演出很投入,肢体语言都很到位。中间唱歌的时候,还会有工作人员拿几只大球在观众席中传来传去,轻轻松松活跃了气氛。艾莎女王的出场让整场演出的气氛达到高潮。(Y45—DL)
……



a9游乐
设施体验



a10表演观看

……
以概念a9~a14,范畴化
为A2活动参与
意愿:无/有
次数:少/多
质量:低/高
当我们尽兴而归的时候,海盗歌手还在唱着那有特殊韵味儿的歌曲,伴着歌声我们赤脚走在回酒店的路上。(Y2—DL)
我非常满足地离开了迪士尼乐园,这一天很累很快乐!(F3—DL)
a42体验
结果
以概念a42、a43范畴化为A13个人结果 效价:
消极/积极
坐上疯帽子旋转杯和小飞象,玩了下来不过瘾,于是我们又带着小宝第二次坐上旋转杯和小飞象。(Y1—DL)
我坐在座位上惊魂未定,身旁的Emma说:“太刺激了!太好玩了!再来一次!”我惊愕地看着她,摇了摇头说:“不会再有第二次!”(Y2—DL)
a43行为
意向
共计43个概念 共计13个范畴
表1  开放式编码分析示例
主范畴 情感触点 作用路径 情感反应 体验质量
副范畴 服务接触
活动参与
人际互动
环境
……
感官
感官&意识
心理感受
行为表现
生理反应
吸引性
趣味性
享受性
表2  主副范畴的识别
因果条件1:服务接触 现象:积极情感
服务接触的性质和面向:
服务接触的次数:无/少/多
服务接触的质量:低/高
积极情感的性质和面向:
情感的强度:弱/强
情感的意识深度:浅/深
积极情感产生的脉络:
当存在服务接触并且服务接触的质量较高时,旅游者会产生较强的积极情感(欣喜、兴奋)。此时如果作为情感触点的服务接触通过意识路径作用于旅游者的内心,则有助于积极自我意识情感(佩服、赞叹)的产生。当服务接触能够促使旅游者产生积极的情感反应时,旅游者实际上获得的是服务体验而不只是服务本身,这样的服务体验将有助于提升旅游者的体验质量,并对个人结果(满意度、口碑、推荐意愿、重游意愿等)产生积极影响
表3  典范模式内容举例
核心范畴 主范畴 副范畴 概念
旅游体验
作用路径
情感触点 服务接触 问询、购物、指引、讲解、合影、疏散管理、购票/验票、盖章/签名
活动参与 游乐设施体验、表演观看、仪式观赏、明星合影、纪念盖章、现场互动
人际互动 同伴交往、在场旅游者间的互动
环境 物理环境、氛围环境
作用路径 感官作用 视听刺激、多感官刺激
意识路径 情景交融、心灵触动
情感反应 心理感受 积极情感、消极情感
行为表现 面部表情、肢体动作、语言表达
生理反应 身体反应
体验质量 吸引性 沉浸、无心观看、情感唤起、意犹未尽、时间意识和情景交融
趣味性 逼真场景、幽默讲解、负感体验
享受性 刺激寻求、怡然自得、意志磨炼、障碍跨越
个人结果 体验结果、行为意向
表4  旅游体验作用路径的故事线形成过程
图2  旅游者的刺激寻求与挑战、技能之间的关系
图3  旅游体验作用路径模型
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