Please wait a minute...

微信公众号

编辑部微信号

旅游导刊  2019, Vol. 3 Issue (3): 71-92    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.111
综述论文     
主观幸福感的理论源流及其在旅游研究中的应用:一个批判性文献综述
梁增贤()
中山大学旅游学院 广东广州 510275
The Evolution of Subjective Well-Being and Its Application in Tourism Research : A Critical Review
Zengxian LIANG()
School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen Univerity, Guangzhou 510275, China
 全文: PDF(1621 KB)   HTML
摘要:

旅游领域的主观幸福感研究已经积累了一定的成果。然而,旅游学界对主观幸福感理论渊源和研究方法的理解仍存在较大分歧,导致相关研究缺乏理论贡献。本文试图理清主观幸福感的源流,比较分析各种研究方法和量表,并对旅游领域幸福感研究存在的问题进行批判性反思。本文指出,主观幸福感属于生活质量范畴,有着多种哲学基础和理论来源,如享乐主义理论、期望理论、原真快乐理论、幸福主义理论和目标清单理论等。基于不同哲学基础的主观幸福感研究已经发展出一系列研究方法和测量量表,每一种研究方法和测量量表都有其优劣势和适用条件,需加以区分。旅游研究未来应该理清主观幸福感的概念基础,坚持问题导向的研究设计,避免随意关联的因果分析,多采用混合研究方法。

关键词: 生活质量主观幸福感生活满意度享乐主义幸福主义    
Abstract:

The application of Subjective well-being (SWB) in tourism research has increased in the past decades, but misunderstanding, misusage, and confusion remain. This paper aims to trace the evolution and new trends of SWB and makes critical reviews on its tourism studies. SWB is both a psychological construct and a social construction, and also an important filed of quality of life (QOL) study. The scientific study of SWB began nearly 100 years ago, and has been shaped and influenced by the efforts of Ed Diener and his team. Unfortunately, one continuing problem of SWB is lack of consensus on the conception and measurement of SWB, since it has multiple origins of philosophy and theories, such as hedonistic theories, desire theories, authentic happiness theories, eudaimonistic (or “nature-fulfillment”) theories and list theories. Among these above, hedonistic is widely accepted as a main philosophical foundation and has developed a series of measurement scales, catering to various contexts and research purposes. Eudaimonistic and other theories have also developed some scales. Each scale has advantages and disadvantages, as well as applicable condition. However, some studies ignore or misunderstand the philosophical foundation and applicable condition of SWB scale, and raise some problematic conclusion, such as oversimplification of classic scale, misusage in unsuitable situation, mis-synthesis of scales with different philosophical origins, mis-interchange of QOL, GL, LS and SWB, and even examination on causal relationship between SWB and various constructs that without or with less theoretical connection.

Key words: Quality of Life (QoL)    Subjective Well-Being (SWB)    Life Satisfaction (LS)    Hedonistic    Eudaimonistic
收稿日期: 2018-09-26 出版日期: 2019-07-11
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 本研究为国家社会科学基金一般项目“旅游消费移民主观幸福感与管理提升研究”阶段性成果
作者简介:

梁增贤(1984— ),男,广西南宁人,人文地理学博士,中山大学旅游学院副教授、系主任,中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心、旅游休闲与社会发展研究中心成员,研究方向:旅游地理学、主题公园、城市旅游、休闲与生活质量。通讯作者。E-mail:liangzx3@mail.sysu.edu.cn

服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
梁增贤

引用本文:

梁增贤. 主观幸福感的理论源流及其在旅游研究中的应用:一个批判性文献综述[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 71-92.

Zengxian LIANG. The Evolution of Subjective Well-Being and Its Application in Tourism Research : A Critical Review. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2019, 3(3): 71-92.

链接本文:

https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/10.12054/lydk.bisu.111        https://lydk.bisu.edu.cn/CN/Y2019/V3/I3/71

理论 对幸福感的理解 理论缺陷 参考文献
享乐主义理论
hedonistic theories
将幸福感定义为欢乐(pleasure),即人们对欢乐与不欢乐的主观认知,而评价的关键就在于个人的欢乐水平 欢乐水平的个体差异太大,缺乏个体间横向可比性,导致难以横向比较幸福感的高低 Sumner,1996;Feldman,2004;
Liang & Hui,2016;
梁增贤,2018
期望理论
desire theories

是人们对自身期望的实际满足程度。知情期望(informed desire)理论是其中最重要的分支,认为期望是建立在对信息和环境情况充分掌握的基础上 人们的期望广泛,甚至可能与幸福感毫无关系,难以认定人们对期望的满足就是幸福感 Griffin,2000;Darwall,2002

原真快乐理论
authentic happiness theories

是基于对自身生活情况充分了解,且完全自主(autonomous)的情况下追求的快乐(being happy);主要包括快乐主义(hedonism)、总体生活满意度(life satisfaction)、情感状态(emotional state)3类量表 虽在旅游研究中应用广泛,但生活满意度缺乏情感方面的测量,测量的时间点和区间长短对测量结果影响也很大
Sumner,1996;Kahneman,1999;Ehrhardt,Saris & Veenhoven,2000;Haybron,2000/2003/2005/
2007;Wang,2017
理论 对幸福感的理解 理论缺陷 参考文献
幸福主义理论
eudaimonistic theories

来源于人们的自我完善和自我实现,不仅包括道德品格方面,还包括生活能力方面

一方面,过于关注个体,难以反映群体和社会整体的幸福利益;另一方面,是哲学层面理念,缺乏普遍认同的测量工具 Ryff,1989;Nussbaum,1993;Haybron,2008;Ruini & Ryff,2016;
陈斯一,2018
目标清单理论
objective list theories
整合以往幸福感理论的要素,认为幸福来源于一系列清单,如对知识、健康、快乐、家庭、财富、社会(朋友)关系等的自我评价 没有统一的哲学基础,回避了最关键的哲学问题——何谓幸福
Murphy,2001;Haybron,2008

表1  主观幸福感的理论渊源
图1  主观幸福感框架模型资料来源:笔者基于Lischetzke 和Eid (2006)的研究调整而来。
[1] Andereck K L, Nyaupane G P.Exploring the nature of tourism and quality of life perceptions among residents[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2011, 50(3): 248~260.
doi: 10.1177/0047287510362918
[2] Andrews F M, Withey S B.Social Indicators of Well-Being: Americans Perceptions of Life Quality[M]. New York: Plenum, 1976.
[3] Arthaud-Day M L, Rode J C, Mooney C H, et al. The subjective well-being construct: A test of its convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2005, 74(3): 445~476.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-8209-6
[4] Biswas-Diener R, Kashdan T B, King L A.Two traditions of happiness research, not two distinct types of happiness[J]. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009, 4(3): 208~211.
doi: 10.1080/17439760902844400
[5] Bradburn N M.The Structure of Psychological Well-Being[M]. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1969.
[6] Budruk M, Phillips R.Quality-of-Life Community Indicators for Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management[M]. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011.
[7] Busseri M A, Sadava S W.A review of the tripartite structure of subjective well-being: Implications for conceptualization, operationalization, analysis, and synthesis[J]. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2011, 15(3): 290~314.
doi: 10.1177/1088868310391271
[8] Buzinde C N, Kalavar J M, Melubo K.Tourism and community well-being: The case of the Maasai in Tanzania[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2014(44): 20~35.
[9] Campbell A, Converse P E, Rodgers W L.The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions[M]. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1976.
[10] Cantril H.The Pattern of Human Concerns[M]. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1965.
[11] Chen Y, Lehto X Y, Cai L P.Vacation and well-being: A study of Chinese tourists[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2013(42): 284~310.
[12] Chi C G Q, Cai R Y, Li Y F. Factors influencing residents’ subjective well-being at World Heritage Sites[J]. Tourism Management, 2017(63): 209~222.
[13] Costa P T Jr, McCrae R R. Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, 38(4): 668~678.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.38.4.668
[14] Csikszentmihalyi M, Larson R.Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method[J]. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 2014, 175(9): 526~536.
[15] Cummins R A.The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale-Adult (ComQol-A5)[M]. 5th ed. Melbourne: Deakin University, 1997.
[16] Darwall S.Welfare and Rational Care[M]. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
[17] de Bloom J, Nawijn J, Geurts S, et al. Holiday travel, staycations, and subjective well-being[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2017, 25(4): 573~588.
doi: 10.1080/09669582.2016.1229323
[18] Diener E.Subjective well-being[J]. Psychological Bulletin, 1984, 95(3): 542~575.
doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
[19] Diener E.Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1994, 31(2): 103~157.
doi: 10.1007/BF01207052
[20] Diener E.Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index[J]. American Psychologist, 2000, 55(1): 34~43.
doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34
[21] Diener E, Diener M.Cross- cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995, 68(4): 653~663.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.68.4.653
[22] Diener E, Emmons R A, Larsen R J, et al.The satisfaction with life scale[J]. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1985, 49(1): 71~75.
doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
[23] Diener E, Larsen R J.Temporal stability and cross-situational consistency of affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1984, 47(4): 871~883.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.47.4.871
[24] Diener E, Oishi S, Lucas R E.Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life[J]. Annual Review of Psychology, 2003(54): 403~425.
[25] Diener E, Suh E, Oishi S.Recent findings on subjective well-being[J]. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1997, 24(1): 25~41.
[26] Diener E, Wirtz D, Tov W, et al.New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2010, 97(2): 143~156.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-009-9493-y
[27] Dolnicar S, Yanamandram V, Cliff K.The contribution of vacations to quality of life[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2012, 39(1): 59~83.
doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2011.04.015
[28] Ehrhardt J J, Saris W E, Veenhoven R.Stability of life-satisfaction over time[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2000, 1(2): 177~205.
doi: 10.1023/A:1010084410679
[29] Ettema D, G?rling T, Eriksson L, et al.Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: Development and test of a measurement tool[J]. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2011, 14(3): 167~175.
[30] Feldman F.Pleasure and the Good Life[M]. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
[31] Fordyce M W.Development of a program to increase personal happiness[J]. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1997, 24(6): 511~521.
[32] Fried E I.What are psychological constructs? On the nature and statistical modelling of emotions, intelligence, personality traits and mental disorders[J]. Health Psychology Review, 2017, 11(2): 130~134.
doi: 10.1080/17437199.2017.1306718
[33] Griffin J.Replies[M]//Crisp R, Hooker B. Well-being and Morality: Essays in Honour of James Griffin of Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 281~313.
[34] Guo Y Z, Kim S, Chen Y.Shanghai residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts and quality of life[J]. Journal of China Tourism Research, 2014, 10(2): 142~164.
doi: 10.1080/19388160.2013.849639
[35] Hartwell H, Fyall A, Willis C, et al.Progress in tourism and destination wellbeing research[J]. Current Issues in Tourism, 2018, 21(16): 1830~1892.
doi: 10.1080/13683500.2016.1223609
[36] Haybron D M.Two philosophical problems in the study of happiness[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2000, 1(2): 207~225.
doi: 10.1023/A:1010075527517
[37] Haybron D M.What do we want from a theory of happiness?[J] Metaphilosophy, 2003, 34(3): 305~329.
doi: 10.1111/meta.2003.34.issue-3
[38] Haybron D M.On being happy or unhappy[J]. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 2005, 71(2): 287~317.
doi: 10.1111/phpr.2005.71.issue-2
[39] Haybron D M.Do we know how happy we are? On some limits of affective introspection and recall[J]. No?s, 2007, 41(3): 394~428.
[40] Haybron D M.Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being[M]//Eid M, Larsen R J. The Science of Subjective Well-Being. New York: The Guilford Press, 2008: 17~43.
[41] Helliwell J, Layard R, Sachs J, et al.World Happiness Report 2017[R]. New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2017.
[42] Hills P, Argyle M.The oxford happiness questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being[J]. Personality and Individual Differences, 2002, 33(7): 1073~1082.
doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00213-6
[43] Huebner E S.Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children[J]. Psychological Assessment, 1994, 6(2): 149~158.
doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.149
[44] Huta V, Waterman A S.Eudaimonia and its distinction from Hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2014, 15(6): 1425~1456.
doi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9485-0
[45] International Well-Being Group. Personal Well-Being Index. Australian Centre on Quality of Life[M]. Melbourne: Daekin University, 2006.
[46] Ivlevs A.Happy hosts? International tourist arrivals and residents’ subjective well-being in Europe[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2017, 56(5): 599~612.
doi: 10.1177/0047287516662353
[47] Joshanloo M.Eastern conceptualizations of happiness: Fundamental differences with western views[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2014, 15(2): 475~493.
doi: 10.1007/s10902-013-9431-1
[48] Kahneman D.Objective happiness[M]//Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N. Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Sage, 1999: 3~25.
[49] Kammann R, Flett R.Affectometer 2: A scale to measure current level of general happiness[J]. Australian Journal of Psychology, 1983, 35(2): 259~265.
doi: 10.1080/00049538308255070
[50] Kahneman D, Krueger A B.Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being[J]. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2006, 20(1): 3~24.
[51] Kahneman D, Krueger A B, Schkade D A, et al.A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method[J]. Science, 2004, 360(5702): 1776~1780.
[52] Kashdan T B, Biswas-Diener R, King L A.Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia[J]. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2008, 3(4): 219~233.
doi: 10.1080/17439760802303044
[53] Kim H, Lee S, Uysal M, et al.Nature-based tourism: Motivation and subjective well-being[J]. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2015, 32(S1): S76-S96.
[54] Kim K, Uysal M, Sirgy M J.How does tourism in a community impact the quality of life of community residents?[J]. Tourism Management, 2013(36): 527~540.
[55] Larsen R J, Eid M.Ed Diener and the science of subjective well-being[M]//Eid M, Larsen R J. The Science of Subjective Well-Being. New York: The Guilford Press, 2008: 1~16.
[56] Lee K H, Choo S W, Hyun S S.Effects of recovery experiences on hotel employees’ subjective well-being[J]. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2016(52): 1~12.
[57] Leffert M.Phenomenology, Uncertainty, and Care in the Therapeutic Encounter[M]. New York: Routledge, 2016.
[58] Liang Z X, Hui T K.Residents’ quality of life and attitudes toward tourism development in China[J]. Tourism Management, 2016(57): 56~67.
[59] Lin Z B, Chen Y, Filieri R.Resident-tourist value co-creation: The role of residents’ perceived tourism impacts and life satisfaction[J]. Tourism Management, 2017(61): 436~442.
[60] Lischetzke T, Eid M.Wohlbefindensdiagnostik[M]//Petermann F, Eid M. Handbuch der Psychologischen Diagnostik. G?ttingen: Hogrefe, 2006: 550~557.
[61] Lloyd K M, Auld C J.The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2002, 57(1): 43~71.
doi: 10.1023/A:1013879518210
[62] Lucas R E, Diener E, Suh E.Discriminant validity of well-being measures[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1996, 71(3): 616~628.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.71.3.616
[63] Lv Q C, Xie X L.Community involvement and place identity: The role of perceived values, perceived fairness, and subjective well-being[J]. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 2017, 22(9): 951~964.
doi: 10.1080/10941665.2017.1345772
[64] Lykken D, Tellegen A.Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon[J]. Psychological Science, 1996, 7(3): 186~189.
doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00355.x
[65] Lyubomirsky S, Dickerhoof R.A construal approach to increasing happiness[M]//Maddux J E, Tangney J P. Social Psychological Foundations of Clinical Psychology. New York: Guilford Press, 2010: 229~244.
[66] Lyubomirsky S, Lepper H S.A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1999, 46(2): 137~155.
doi: 10.1023/A:1006824100041
[67] Maddux J E.Subjective well-being and life satisfaction: An introduction to conceptions, theories, and measures[M]//Maddux J E. Subjective Well-Being and Life Satisfaction. New York: Routledge, 2018: 3~31.
[68] McCabe S, Johnson S. The happiness factor in tourism: Subjective well-being and social tourism[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2013(41): 42~65.
[69] Mendes S, Severo M, Lopes C.Comparison of modes of administration and response options in the assessment of subjective health using the first question of SF-36[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2012, 107(2): 305~315.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9849-y
[70] Michalos A C.Multiple discrepancies theory (MDT)[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1985, 16(4): 347~413.
doi: 10.1007/BF00333288
[71] Moscardo G, Konovalov E, Murphy L, et al.Mobilities, community well-being and sustainable tourism[J]. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2013, 21(4): 532~556.
doi: 10.1080/09669582.2013.785556
[72] Murphy M C.Natural Law and Practical Rationality[M]. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[73] Nawijn J, Mitas O.Resident attitudes to tourism and their effect on subjective well-being: The case of Palma de Mallorca[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2012, 51(5): 531~541.
doi: 10.1177/0047287511426482
[74] Neal J D, Sirgy M J, Uysal M.Measuring the effect of tourism services on travelers’ quality of life: Further validation[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2004, 69(3): 243~277.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-004-5012-3
[75] Neal J D, Sirgy M J, Uysal M.The role of satisfaction with leisure travel/tourism services and experience in satisfaction with leisure life and overall life[J]. Journal of Business Research, 1999, 44(3): 153~163.
doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00197-5
[76] Neugarten B L, Havighurst R J, Tobin S S.The measurement of life satisfaction[J]. Journal of Gerontology, 1961, 16(2): 134~143.
doi: 10.1093/geronj/16.2.134
[77] Nussbaum M.Non-relative virtues: An Aristotelian approach[M]//Nussbaum M, Sen A. The Quality of Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993: 242~269.
[78] Parfit D.Reasons and Persons[M]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
[79] Pavot W.The assessment of subjective well-being: Successes and shortfalls[M]//Eid M, Larsen R J. The Science of Subjective Well-Being. New York: Guilford, 2008: 124~140.
[80] Pavot W, Diener E, Colvin C R, et al.Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures[J]. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1991, 57(1): 149~161.
doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_17
[81] Pavot W, Diener E, Suh E.The temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale[J]. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1998, 70(2): 340~354.
doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa7002_11
[82] Ruini C, Ryff C D.Using eudaimonic well-being to improve lives[M]//Wood A M, Johnson J. The Wiley handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology. New York: Wiley, 2016: 153~166.
[83] Ryff C D.Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 57(6): 1069~1081.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069
[84] Ryff C D.Eudaimonic well-being, inequality, and health: Recent findings and future directions[J]. International Review of Economics, 2017, 64(2): 159~178.
doi: 10.1007/s12232-017-0277-4
[85] Sandvik E, Diener E, Seidlitz L.Subjective well-being: The convergence and stability of self-report and non-self-report measures[J]. Journal of Personality, 1993, 61(3): 317~342.
doi: 10.1111/jopy.1993.61.issue-3
[86] Schwarz N, Strack F.Reports of subjective well-being: Judgmental processes and their methodological implications[M]//Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N. Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Sage, 1999: 61~84.
[87] Sirgy M J, Kruger P S, Lee D J, et al.How does a travel trip affect tourists’ life satisfaction?[J]. Journal of Travel Research, 2011, 50(3): 261~275.
doi: 10.1177/0047287510362784
[88] Stone A A, Shiffman S S, Devries M W.Ecological momentary assessment[M]//Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N. Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1999.
[89] Strickhouser J E, Zell E, Krizan Z.Does personality predict health and well-being? A metasynthesis[J]. Health Psychology, 2017, 36(8): 797~810.
doi: 10.1037/hea0000475
[90] Su L J, Swanson S R, Chen X H.The effects of perceived service quality on repurchase intentions and subjective well-being of Chinese tourists: The mediating role of relationship quality[J]. Tourism Management, 2016(52): 82~95.
[91] Sumner L W.Welfare, Happiness & Ethics[M]. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
[92] Thomas L E, Chambers K D.Phenomenology of life satisfaction among elderly men: Quantitative and qualitative views[J]. Psychology and Aging, 1989, 4(3): 284~289.
doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.4.3.284
[93] Uysal M, Perdue R R, Sirgy M J.Handbook of Tourism and Quality-of-Life Research: Enhancing the Lives of Tourists and Residents of Host Communities[M]. New York: Springer, 2012.
[94] V?stfj?ll D, Friman M, G?rling T, et al.The measurement of core affect: A Swedish self-report measure derived from the affect circumplex[J]. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2002, 43(1): 19~31.
doi: 10.1111/sjop.2002.43.issue-1
[95] Veenhoven R.Conditions of Happiness[M]. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1984.
[96] Wang S S.Leisure travel outcomes and life satisfaction: An integrative look[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2017(63): 169~182.
[97] Waterman A S.Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, 64(4): 678~691.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.678
[98] Waterman A S, Schwartz S J, Conti R.The implications of two conceptions of happiness (hedonic enjoyment and eudaimonia) for the understanding of intrinsic motivation[J]. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2008, 9(1): 41~79.
doi: 10.1007/s10902-006-9020-7
[99] Waterman A S, Schwartz S J, Zamboanga B L, et al.The questionnaire for eudaimonic well-being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity[J]. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2010, 5(1): 41~61.
doi: 10.1080/17439760903435208
[100] Watson D, Clark L A, Tellegen A.Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales[J]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1988, 54(6): 1063~1070.
doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
[101] Wilson W R.Correlates of avowed happiness[J]. Psychological Bulletin, 1967, 67(4): 294~306.
doi: 10.1037/h0024431
[102] Woo E, Kim H, Uysal M.Life satisfaction and support for tourism development[J]. Annals of Tourism Research, 2015(50): 84~97.
[103] Wood L A, Johnson J.Life satisfaction among the rural elderly: What do the numbers mean?[J]. Social Indicators Research, 1989, 21(4): 379~408.
doi: 10.1007/BF00303953
[104] Ye S Q.Validation of the temporal satisfaction with life scale in a sample of Chinese university students[J]. Social Indicators Research, 2007, 80(3): 617~628.
doi: 10.1007/s11205-006-0010-2
[105] 边燕杰, 肖阳. 中英居民主观幸福感比较研究[J]. 社会学研究, 2014(2): 22~42.
[106] 别婉文, 梁增贤, 王彩萍. 基于居民感知视角的古城镇旅游对居民生活质量的影响——以凤凰古城为例[J]. 旅游论坛, 2017, 10(1): 89~100.
[107] 陈斯一. 亚里士多德论目的、功能与幸福——对包容论的新辩护[J]. 道德与文明, 2018(4): 136~141.
[108] 方纲, 风笑天. 城乡居民主观幸福研究述评[J]. 广西民族大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 2009, 31(2): 68~73.
[109] 梁增贤. 旅游地社区居民生活质量评估——检验多重差异理论的适用性[J]. 旅游学刊, 2018, 33(2): 38~47.
[110] 梁增贤, 黎结仪, 文彤. 城市旅游非正规就业者生活质量感知研究——以广州为例[J]. 旅游学刊, 2015, 30(9): 72~81.
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-5006.2015.09.008
[111] 秦宇. 什么是理论贡献?[J] 旅游导刊, 2017, 1(2): 1~8.
[112] 丘海雄, 李敢. 国外多元视野“幸福”观研析[J]. 社会学研究, 2012(2): 224~241.
[113] 孙伟. “道”与“幸福”: 亚里士多德与荀子伦理学之间的另一种对话[J]. 复旦学报(社会科学版), 2015(6): 86~95.
[114] 王燕, 李悦, 金一波. 幸福感研究综述[J]. 心理研究, 2010, 3(2): 14~19.
[115] 严标宾, 郑雪, 邱林. 主观幸福感研究综述[J]. 自然辩证法通讯, 2004, 26(2): 96~100, 109.
[1] 崔庆明, 徐红罡. 反思生态旅游中自然的社会建构[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(4): 15-15.
[2] 吕宁, 张劲丽. 在线旅游捆绑销售的价格框架对旅游者购买意愿的影响研究——感知交易价值的中介作用与品牌认知的调节作用[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(4): 30-49.
[3] 朱玉卓, 王艳平. 旅游哲学思想逻辑的学术考察及旅游世界关闭问题的提出[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(4): 50-65.
[4] 吕兴洋, 徐海军, 李惠璠. 目的地感官营销研究综述与展望[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(4): 66-92.
[5] 周其楼, 李想. 旅游定量研究论文写作逻辑性的思考[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(4): 1-14.
[6] 查建平, 钱醒豹, 赵倩倩, 谭庭. 中国旅游效率与全要素生产率的测算与分解——基于三层级共同前沿SBM-DEA模型的实证分析[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 1-27.
[7] 高凌江, 刘倩倩, 汤宇军. 展览会赞助匹配对赞助商品牌资产的影响研究——以上海国际酒店用品博览会为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 28-44.
[8] 罗文斌, 唐叶枝, 潘慧敏. 基于主客区域身份差异的城市游憩者环境责任行为比较研究——以岳麓山风景名胜区为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 45-56.
[9] 兰金秋, 于立新, 王会战. 革命老区旅游精准扶贫制度增权的比较研究——以梁家河村和康坪村为例[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 57-70.
[10] 李文静, 张朝枝. 过程研究转向:旅游地理研究的理论建构新视角[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 19-21.
[11] 方叶林, 王芳. 考虑环境变量的我国大陆省域旅游业效率测度及优化——基于区域经济与交通区位视角[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 40-53.
[12] 王春雷, 徐坤. “活动观”视域下的美好生活建设:一个新框架的提出[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 1-18.
[13] 雷铭. 基于计划行为理论的我国大陆居民医疗旅游意向研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 54-71.
[14] 马天, 谢彦君. 旅游体验中的情感与情感研究:现状与进展[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 82-101.
[15] 李亚. 什么样的目的地微电影更容易被分享?——基于情绪和信息来源地的研究[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(2): 72-81.