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旅游导刊  2019, Vol. 3 Issue (3): 71-92    DOI: 10.12054/lydk.bisu.111
中山大学旅游学院 广东广州 510275
The Evolution of Subjective Well-Being and Its Application in Tourism Research : A Critical Review
Zengxian LIANG()
School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen Univerity, Guangzhou 510275, China
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关键词: 生活质量主观幸福感生活满意度享乐主义幸福主义    

The application of Subjective well-being (SWB) in tourism research has increased in the past decades, but misunderstanding, misusage, and confusion remain. This paper aims to trace the evolution and new trends of SWB and makes critical reviews on its tourism studies. SWB is both a psychological construct and a social construction, and also an important filed of quality of life (QOL) study. The scientific study of SWB began nearly 100 years ago, and has been shaped and influenced by the efforts of Ed Diener and his team. Unfortunately, one continuing problem of SWB is lack of consensus on the conception and measurement of SWB, since it has multiple origins of philosophy and theories, such as hedonistic theories, desire theories, authentic happiness theories, eudaimonistic (or “nature-fulfillment”) theories and list theories. Among these above, hedonistic is widely accepted as a main philosophical foundation and has developed a series of measurement scales, catering to various contexts and research purposes. Eudaimonistic and other theories have also developed some scales. Each scale has advantages and disadvantages, as well as applicable condition. However, some studies ignore or misunderstand the philosophical foundation and applicable condition of SWB scale, and raise some problematic conclusion, such as oversimplification of classic scale, misusage in unsuitable situation, mis-synthesis of scales with different philosophical origins, mis-interchange of QOL, GL, LS and SWB, and even examination on causal relationship between SWB and various constructs that without or with less theoretical connection.

Key words: Quality of Life (QoL)    Subjective Well-Being (SWB)    Life Satisfaction (LS)    Hedonistic    Eudaimonistic
收稿日期: 2018-09-26 出版日期: 2019-07-11
PACS:  F59  
基金资助: 本研究为国家社会科学基金一般项目“旅游消费移民主观幸福感与管理提升研究”阶段性成果

梁增贤(1984— ),男,广西南宁人,人文地理学博士,中山大学旅游学院副教授、系主任,中山大学旅游发展与规划研究中心、旅游休闲与社会发展研究中心成员,研究方向:旅游地理学、主题公园、城市旅游、休闲与生活质量。通讯作者。

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梁增贤. 主观幸福感的理论源流及其在旅游研究中的应用:一个批判性文献综述[J]. 旅游导刊, 2019, 3(3): 71-92.

Zengxian LIANG. The Evolution of Subjective Well-Being and Its Application in Tourism Research : A Critical Review. Tourism and Hospitality Prospects, 2019, 3(3): 71-92.


理论 对幸福感的理解 理论缺陷 参考文献
hedonistic theories
将幸福感定义为欢乐(pleasure),即人们对欢乐与不欢乐的主观认知,而评价的关键就在于个人的欢乐水平 欢乐水平的个体差异太大,缺乏个体间横向可比性,导致难以横向比较幸福感的高低 Sumner,1996;Feldman,2004;
Liang & Hui,2016;
desire theories

是人们对自身期望的实际满足程度。知情期望(informed desire)理论是其中最重要的分支,认为期望是建立在对信息和环境情况充分掌握的基础上 人们的期望广泛,甚至可能与幸福感毫无关系,难以认定人们对期望的满足就是幸福感 Griffin,2000;Darwall,2002

authentic happiness theories

是基于对自身生活情况充分了解,且完全自主(autonomous)的情况下追求的快乐(being happy);主要包括快乐主义(hedonism)、总体生活满意度(life satisfaction)、情感状态(emotional state)3类量表 虽在旅游研究中应用广泛,但生活满意度缺乏情感方面的测量,测量的时间点和区间长短对测量结果影响也很大
Sumner,1996;Kahneman,1999;Ehrhardt,Saris & Veenhoven,2000;Haybron,2000/2003/2005/
理论 对幸福感的理解 理论缺陷 参考文献
eudaimonistic theories


一方面,过于关注个体,难以反映群体和社会整体的幸福利益;另一方面,是哲学层面理念,缺乏普遍认同的测量工具 Ryff,1989;Nussbaum,1993;Haybron,2008;Ruini & Ryff,2016;
objective list theories
整合以往幸福感理论的要素,认为幸福来源于一系列清单,如对知识、健康、快乐、家庭、财富、社会(朋友)关系等的自我评价 没有统一的哲学基础,回避了最关键的哲学问题——何谓幸福

表1  主观幸福感的理论渊源
图1  主观幸福感框架模型资料来源:笔者基于Lischetzke 和Eid (2006)的研究调整而来。
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